Important: Training has been speeded up starting with season 43 (See Faster training next season). Deeper research regarding training with the new engine is in it's infancy, so data is subject to change. Please keep that in mind when using this figures
Importance of training
Training is one of the most important aspects of a successful team in Hattrick. By concentrating on training just one skill for a number of seasons a team can take medium skilled, young players and train them up to become superstars, who can then be sold for a profit or kept in the team, thus improving the team and helping the team to eventually win promotion.
But the monetary side is only one side of the coin. Each training type also has associated other benefits and disadvantages. For example a playmaking trainer can't train his players efficiently in the later cup rounds and a goalkeeper trainer is not limited to specific formation.
Choosing the correct players to train is a balancing act. There are four factors to consider.
- Main skill (goalkeeping, defending, playmaking, winger or scoring)
- Secondary skills, related to the main skill
There is little to be gained from training players that are not at least passable in their main skill. For new teams 17 year olds with at least Passable main skill should be considered. Training a player who is passable or solid in primary skill is not as profitable as training higher skills, but lower skilled players cost considerably less to purchase. To get some ideas of the cost and profit from various skill increases see HAM Transfer Price Evaluation.
As players age, they decrease in price, so buying slightly older players (e.g. 18 or 19 year olds) is often wise.
The better the secondary skills, the more you will pay to purchase the trainee, but the final selling price will also be higher.
In Hattrick, training takes place once a week. Typically only players who played on certain positions are fully trained depending on the skill you are training. If, for instance, forwards are being trained then only the players that played as a forward in one of the two games that week receive training. There are 11 types of training. Each have their own potential for generating profit or improving your team. Generally the training types that concentrate on one of the main skills (goalkeeping, defending, playmaking, winger, and scoring) are the most popular training types.
To train the maximum number of players each week it is important to arrange friendlies where you play your trainees who did not play in the league match in the same week.
A player can receive a maximum of 90 minutes training per week. If a player plays more than 90 minutes in a trainable position, he will get the most beneficial 90 minutes only.
Brackets indicate small effects. Double brackets indicate very small effects.
|Training type||Improves||...for...||Trainings required||Max players trained|
|Defending||Defending||Defenders, Wing backs ((Others))||5||10|
|Playmaking||Playmaking||Inner midfielders (Wingers) ((Others))||4||6 (4)|
|Crossing (Winger)||Winger||Wingers (Wing backs) ((others))||3||4 (4)|
|Defensive positions||Defending||Goalkeepers, defenders, inner midfielders and wingers ((Others))||10||22|
|Wing attacks||Winger||Forwards and wingers ((Others))||5||10|
|Set pieces||((All who played a game during the week))||About a season||22|
|Short passes||Passing||Midfielders, wingers and forwards ((Others))||4||16|
|Through passes||Passing||Defenders, midfielders and wingers ((Others))||5||20|
|Set pieces||Set pieces||All who played a game during the week, 25% bonus to the set pieces taker and goalkeeper||1||22|
Please note the 'Training Speed' numbers are based on 100% training intensity, 15% stamina training, 17 year old trainees having a skillup from solid to excellent, using a solid coach, and 10 assistants. A training speed of, lets say, 3.7 weeks is presented in this table as 4 trainings required to pop to excellent, since a player cannot pop in a middle of a week.
A very rough rule is that for each year above 17 it takes approximately 4% longer to train a player than stated in the above table.
Also note that these training speed values are given as an average, and can (and will) vary from player to player. This means, for example, that if the value presented for a given training is 5 weeks, some players will take 4, others 6, but if you look at a large number of players they should average at 5. This might be due to the fact that the player gets a part of the next level after a pop. When that happens he needs less time to pop again. For example: When the first pop ends up to solid and a very little bit (7,02) he needs more time to go to excellent than when his first pop gives him a bit more (7,12).
Training efficiency factors
Most team managers agree it is best to train at 100% intensity. The benefits are clear in that skills increase more quickly, and there is also the likelihood of better form.
Unfortunately, there is also an increased chance of injury.
Effect of stamina training
The amount of training that you devote to stamina will cut into the amount of skill training accomplished each week. You will have to balance the amount of stamina training you need to maintain your preferred squad level (as well as any added stamina for trainees).
Effect of coach
To achieve the optimal training time requires a coach with solid coaching skills. A coaching level below that lengthens training time. A general rule of thumb is one extra week for every level below solid, although this rule is not so accurate with the faster training types.
Excellent coaches train slightly faster than solid ones by roughly half a week but are generally seen as too expensive to be profitable in the long term.
Effect of player age
Young players train much faster than old players. To achieve the optimal training time, many managers prefer trainees between the ages of 17 and 20, with 17 or 18 the best age to start training. Clubs at higher series levels may prefer to train older players at a higher skill level in order to remain competitive in both the league and the cup.
Older players are slower to train, and a good rule of thumb is one half extra week for every year older than 17. More precisely, training becomes approx. 4% slower for every year above this (also called trainings speed depreciation).
As a player reaches 27 his abilities may start to decrease. This process doesn't occur constantly, and there is no guarantee it will happen at all. Typically, very small decreases occur for players around 30, considerably larger leaps for players around 35. For some reason, these decreases in abilities always surface on Mondays. Certain skills are harder to maintain as players grow older — scoring ability is the hardest to maintain, whilst goalkeeping is the easiest.
Effect of assistants
Assistant coaches also help with training. A team may only have 10 of any one type of staff. It is not always in a team's best interest to hire all the possible assistants. The effect of each additional assistant decreases fast. The effect of additional assistants most probably follows a square root dependence. Hence four assistants improve the training twice as much as only one assistant does, and nine assistants improve the training three times as much ( sqrt(9) vs sqrt(4) vs sqrt(1) ).
Another model suggests that each additional assistant coach is worth 50% of the previous. If that is the case then you get something like this:
- 1 = 100%
- 2 = 50%
- 3 = 25%
- 4 = 12.5%
- 5 = 6.25%
- 6 = 3.125%
- 7 = 1.5625%
- 8 = 0.78125%
- 9 = 0.390625%
- 10 = 0.1953125%
New clubs and clubs in financial difficulty should always bear this in mind when trying to make savings.
- For more information, see: Staff.
Main article: Training loss
When to cash in
In most cases selling trainees at age 21 is the best way to maximise profit. Once a player hits 21 years old, he begins to train at a noticeably slower rate compared to a younger player.
With particularly high skilled players, especially National Team players, training can be taken on further, but in general the financial returns decrease beyond the age of 21.
It is also worth noting it is possible to overtrain a player, and make him unsustainable in the long run due to the extremely high wages. The recent market deflation also makes selling unprofitable after 21.
- Skill trading - Primarily refers to buying players believed to be close to "popping", ideally within one to two weeks, benefiting from market inefficiency in valuing partially trained players. This approach is difficult with any skill other than goalkeeping, due to the inexact correspondence of TSI to player skills.
- Osmosis training - Up to global season 34, every player in a team got at least a bit of training, even if they didn't play at all. Many teams profited from this by buying a lot of players (up to 50) and waiting for a pop in a few weeks while doing nothing. But from season 35 every player needs to play at least once in a week to get the minimum training, effectively decreasing the profitability of this technique.
But it could be that the goal of maximizing profit is a goal that does not optimise the team over time. Some users believe it is better to develop your own players to advance in the series system, rather than to optimise economical goals. It is after all a football manager game!
Individual training instruction
On the 3rd of July 2008, Hattrick announced that Individual training instruction was available. This means you may exclude up to three players from getting any training (except Stamina) at all from playing a game. The main point of this feature is to avoid paying excessive salaries for players that are already very highly skilled. You access this feature from your Training page.
Individual training has a very different meaning in a Youth Academy. If Individual training is selected, each player randomly gets a small boost to a relevant skill, eg- keepers will increase keeper, defense or set pieces, while a midfielder will increase playmaking, passing, defense or set pieces. The owner has no control over which skill gets chosen, though, and a skill that is already capped may get picked, resulting in no training for that player. Individual training is rarely used as result of this random factor and the extremely slow speed at which it operates.