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The Manual tells a manager how to play the game and how it works.


Hattrick is a game where you get to lead a virtual football team to glory, in competition with other participants from all over the world.

Hattrick is a simple game, it's easy to grasp the basics. You can play Hattrick even if you just log in once or twice a week (but we hope to see you more often). The challenge is not to beat the game, the challenge lies within the competition with the other participants. While competing, many participants become friends, making Hattrick also a social game.

Your overall tasks

You perform the duties of both manager and club owner. You plan tactics and strategy, decide what to train and select which players that should play. You buy and sell players, invest in arena improvements and much more. To be successful a good piece of advice is to form a good strategy and a long term plan. Success and glory will not come for free, after all.

Your new team

When you take charge of your team it has just got a vacant slot in any of the two lowest divisions in the Hattrick series system. To start your climb upwards you got a squad of players (some might be talented and some might not...), an arena and some money to your aid. Now it's time for you to show your magic.

Region and weather

Your team belongs to region, a region which you probably have a relation to. Regions are there so you can check out other people from the same area as you. Another important function is that each region has its own weather. No regions have better weather than others, all regions are equally good so you don't have to worry about making a bad choice.

Weather affects a couple of things, but most importantly attendance (less people will watch your games when it's raining). At the "Region" page you can see what the weather is like today and a weather forecast for tomorrow. If the sun shines today, it's more likely (compared to other weather types) that it also shines tomorrow, so weather isn't completely random.

If you want, you can change region in between seasons. It will however cost you 10 000 € and 3% of your supporters will leave your fan club.

Our best piece of advice

The best piece of advice we can give you is to read this manual. You don't need to read everything at once, just reading the first chapters to start with will give you a good clue how to play the game. If there is any other advice it would be to ask any question you may have in our forums. There is actually a forum designed just for questions.

Players: Skills

Each player has 8 basic skills, while there are also some additional factors affecting their performance in different situations. Let's have a rundown on the various skills first:

Stamina: Decides how much of his ability to perform a player loses during the course of the match.
Playmaking: The ability to control the ball and turn it into scoring opportunities.
Scoring: The ball is supposed to go into the net.
Winger: The ability to finish off scoring opportunities by advancing down the sides
Goalkeeping: The ball should not make it into your own net.
Passing: Players who know how to pass the decisive pass are a great help for the team’s attack.
Defending: The ability to stop opponent attacks.
Set pieces: The outcome of your free kicks and penalties depends on how skilled your set pieces taker is.

How good is your player?

In real life you say a football player is a "quite ok winger" or a "really good defender" when you see him play. In Hattrick, we do the same to describe how good players are. We use denominations (and not only for players), and for players' skills the scale goes from non-existent to divine. You can see the full denomination scales in our appendix.

Different players need different skills

All players don't need to be good in all skills, but stamina is important for everyone. Sometimes it is good enough if a player is good in just one skill (other than stamina), but you will get the most out of your player if he is good on several skills. Which skills (apart from stamina) a player benefits from depends on the position he will play:


Goalkeeping is needless to say important for goalkeepers, and only goalkeepers. They also make good use out of being good defenders.

Central defenders:

Defenders should naturally have a lot of defending. Playmaking is also beneficial, and their passing skill really makes a difference when counter-attacking (see tactic chapter).

Wing backs:

Defending is most important, but they also benefit a lot from being good wingers. They contribute a little with their playmaking skill, and passing helps when counter-attacking.

Inner Midfielders:

Having good playmakers in the inner midfield positions is a key ingredient for most successful teams. They also use their passing and defending skills a lot.


Naturally profit from being good wingers, but playmaking is also important. In addition, they also use both their passing and defending skill.


Their number one task is to score goals, making scoring their number one skill. Passing is also valuable, and so is winger.

Changes in skills

The skills slowly change over time. All skills can be improved by training as long as the player lives, but as players get older they will also start losing a little of their skills. Everything about changes in skills is described in the chapter about training.

Players: Other attributes


You can see players' exact age on the player page. One Hattrick year is 112 days, which means all players are a certain age and 0-111 days.


All players have a personality. They can be nice or nasty, leaders or loners, temperamental or calm. Right now the personality does not affect much in the game, but it’s for example wise to appoint a team captain with good leader abilities. More info about how personality affects the game is found in the psychology chapter.


Experience simulates that an older player has managed to learn things not directly concerning his skills, which positively affects his actions on the field.

Total Skill Index (TSI)

Total Skill Index is a measurement of how skilled a player is. TSI increases with training and can also increase (and decrease) with form.


The better form a player is in, the better he will perform. It’s not about the physical context though, it has nothing to do with how well trained a player is. Form in Hattrick reflects a combination of aspects making it possible for, or preventing a player, from reaching his full potential – like for example how his private situation in life is at the moment.

On the player page you can see a player's "current form". It's the figure applied for matches. An "excellent" player in "wretched" form is usually worse off than a "passable" player in "solid" form for example. Current form is negatively affected by the amount of stamina training in the team; the more stamina you train (percentage-wise) the more negative effect. Training "General (form)" will on the other hand have a positive effect on form.

Additionally, there's a hidden "background form", which is used to compute where the player's form is heading. Each week, during training, the current form of every player will change, moving towards the hidden background form. Current form is not changed immediately to the figure of background form. Instead it moves in steps over several weeks, though the further away from background form they are the larger the steps will be.

After current form has been changed during training, there is a chance that background form is changed for each player. Every player has the same individual chance of having his background form change, and there is nothing you can do to influence this chance. However, when chance decrees that a player's background form will change, there are several factors that influence what the new background form will be:

  • If a player has participated in a match during the week. This is very important!
  • Training intensity – the harder you train, the better form in general
  • Your coach – the better skilled he is, the better form in general
  • Assistant coaches – Assistants also help improve form


About half of all players have a characteristic called "speciality", which has impact on matches. There are 5 different main specialities available for players: "Technical", "Quick", "Head", "Powerful" and "Unpredictable”. Every main speciality has a good and a bad side, explained in the Special Events chapter. Specialities can also be useful for certain tactic types as explained in the Tactics chapter.

Some rare specialities also exist. Their effects are more or less unknown and up to you to find out.


Sometimes players get injured. If this is the case, the injury, unless very slight, will put them on the treatment table for a couple of games. The risk of injuries increases as the team increases the intensity of training, but you can also hire physiotherapists to reduce the risk of injuries.

Older players take a longer time to heal, and doctors can be hired to help players heal faster. Players approaching their forties will have a hard time to recover at all though. Also remember that the injury times stated are only estimates - if your star forward has a week-long injury, it might take him 8 or 9 days to get fit again.

Yellow and red cards

Players may get booked or sent off during games, highly aggressive players (especially those with low honesty and lacking experience) more often than others. 2 bookings during a match will automatically lead to the player getting sent off. Getting sent off means that the player is suspended from the next competitive game. A player will also be suspended for one match after accumulating 3 bookings from competitive games during a season. Bookings from league, cup, and qualifying games are all counted as the same. If a player has already been booked twice in league matches one season, and receives another booking in a following cup match, he will be suspended from the next competitive match, regardless of if it's a league match, cup match or qualifier.

You can check your players list for how many bookings your players have received before a match. A player who has accumulated 3 bookings or has been sent off in his last match will have a red card symbol on the players list, to show his suspension. The suspended players booking slate is wiped when a competitive match has been played. Also, all player slates are wiped at the end of the season. A player can't get a suspension (or get his slate wiped) from a friendly game.

Lineup: The basics

As the manager for your team you decide how your team will play and which formation to use. Before each match you submit your decision – your match order – through the order form found in the match list. Your match order needs to be submitted at least 15 minutes before the game starts. You can also make a match order a "standard setup" (which we recommend you to do for reasons of precaution). This means that Hattrick will assume this setup for future games but you can always adjust your setup according to the particular circumstances affecting matches ahead.

Starting line-up and substitutes

For each match you select your starting eleven players, your substitutes, your set pieces taker and your team captain. In the simple 4-4-2 order form you choose which player goes where from a scrolling list. In the advanced order form you choose which player goes where by drag and drop.

If one of your players gets injured, the substitute for that position will enter the pitch. If you don't have a substitute assigned to a certain position, or if the substitute is injured as well, one of the other substitutes will automatically get selected to play. If you don't have any able substitutes you'll have to continue the game with 10 players. If you're out of subs and your goalkeeper gets injured (or if you haven't named any), an outfield player will move to that spot. You can also set up conditional substitutions. See the substitutions chapter for more info. Remember that you must start your games with at least 9 players to avoid a walkover, which will lose you a week's training for all players in your squad, as well as a portion of your club's supporters. Moreover, you can't have more than 50 players in your squad.

Choosing team formation

Hattrick is built around a traditional 4-4-2 formation, but you can choose to play with another formation if you wish. To change formation you move a player to a new position on the field, you reposition him. To reposition a player, you choose his new position (extra inner/forward/central defender) in the drop down menu for that player.

For example, if you want to play 3-5-2 you reposition a defender to "extra inner" and if you want to play 5-4-1 you reposition a forward to "extra central defender". It is worth knowing that a repositioned player will not play to his full capacity and will contribute a bit less to the ratings than other players.

In the advanced match order form you choose formation in the dropdown at the top (or drag and drop a player to the position you fancy). Any repositioned player will automatically be marked in yellow for your knowledge.

Individual orders

You can give all your outfield players on the pitch (apart from repositioned players) individual orders. You can for example order your inner midfielder to play "defensive". This means he's still an inner midfielder, but he concentrate more on the defensive side than normal, and less on attacking. There are four individual orders, see this table for full details what they mean for each position.

Position Tactics Effect
Wing back Offensive More Winger, somewhat more Playmaking, less Defending
Defensive More Defending, less Winger, somewhat less Playmaking
Towards middle More Defending to the middle, less Defending to the side, less Winger
Central defender Offensive Somewhat more Playmaking, less Defending
Towards wing More Defending to the side, less Defending in the middle, a certain amount of Winger, somewhat less Playmaking
Winger Offensive More Winger, somewhat more passing, less Defending, somewhat less Playmaking
Defensive More Defending, less Winger, somewhat less Playmaking and Passing
Towards middle More Playmaking, less Winger, more defending in the middle, less Defending to the side, more Passing in the middle, less Passing to the side
Inner midfielder Offensive More Passing, less Defending, somewhat less Playmaking
Defensive More Defending, less Passing, somewhat less Playmaking
Towards wing A nice amount of Winger, somewhat less Playmaking, more Passing and Defending on the side, and less Passing/Defending in the middle
Forward Defensive A certain amount of Playmaking, more Passing (and even more Passing if Technical), less Scoring, somewhat less Winger
Towards wing More Winger, more Scoring and Passing on the side, less Scoring and Passing in the middle

Tactics and team attitude

In the order form you can also set your team's tactic (if any) and the team's attitude for that particular match. The different tactic types are described in the Match: Tactics chapter and team attitude is explained in the Psychology chapter.

Match: The basics

Finding the right lineup is one of your biggest challenges in Hattrick. In this and the other match chapters we will focus on how the players’ skills come into play in a match. This chapter will give you the basics - the most important things to know.

The basics of the match simulation

In each half a number of attacks are made, and the midfield decides which team gets each attack. The team with the strongest midfield (the team with the most ball possession) is most likely to get the largest number of attacks. When a team gets an attack it is decided what kind of attack it is. There are three types of attacks (right wing, left wing, centre), and set pieces (free kicks and penalties) also. The attacking team’s attack for that sector will then try to break through the defending team's defence for that sector.

A match has 10 basic attacks

In each match 10 basic attacks (as explained above) are made. Most of them are reported in the match report, but attacks very far from leading to goals are not reported. You may also gain additional attacks from "Special Events" and from counter-attacks. These additional attacks are described in the other two match chapters.

Home team advantage

The home team is helped by their fans. Ordinarily you have a larger percentage of possession at home than away. In a derby (when both teams are from the same region) the home team also receives this advantage, while the away team receives about half the advantage. If the game is played on neutral ground, neither team receives any advantage.

Psychology and the coach's mentality

Team spirit, confidence and team attitude affect how well your team performs. You can read all about how Hattrick simulates these in the "Psychology" chapter.
The coach's mentality (if he’s offensive, defensive or neutral) also plays a part. Read more about this in the "The coach" chapter.

Team rating is the rating you should focus on

After a match has been played, you will get a team rating for each part of the team. These ratings tell you how well different parts of your team performed in the match and these ratings are also what matters in the actual match calculation.

The match rating denominations (scale goes from non-existent to divine) are also specified in four sub-levels: very low, low, high and very high. This way it's easier to know how good your rating is within a certain step. For example a "very high solid" rating is a just a little bit worse than "very low excellent", but a lot better than "very low passable".

Star rating

After a match your players receive a star rating for their performance in the match. This is what they mean:

The yellow stars show his performance in the last minute of the match.

The brown stars show how much of his average capacity he had lost at the end of the match.

Sometimes (but very rarely) a player performs better than his average at the last minute of the match, this is shown with red stars.

Please note that the star rating only rates the individual player performance on his particular position and is useful for comparing different players playing in the same position. It's not an ideal way to measure team strength. To know how your whole team performed (and compare with other teams), look at the team ratings.

Please also be aware that a repositioned player receives a rating as if he would have been non-repositioned, despite contributing less than a normal player (see basic lineup chapter).

A normal case

Shortly put, the state of the midfield decides how many opportunities your team will produce during a match. The other parts of the team will decide the probability of attacks leading to goals.

The following table will help you somewhat when you select your team. Note that it's only an approximation. Some levels of abilities following each other may mean only slight differences in performance, and for others the differences might be much larger. In addition, individual orders (see specific chapter) have not been taken into consideration.

Part of team Factors (most important first)
Midfield Playmaking inner midfielders
Playmaking wingers
Playmaking defenders
Playmaking wingbacks
Attack left wing Winger left winger
Winger left wing back
Scoring forwards
Passing left winger
Passing left inner midfielder
Winger forwards
Passing forwards
Defence left wing Defending left wing back
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending left central defender
Defending left winger
Defending goalkeeper
Defending left inner midfielder
Attack centre Scoring forwards
Passing forwards
Passing inner midfielders
Passing wingers
Defence centre Defending central defenders
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending wing backs
Defending inner midfielders
Defending goalkeeper
Defending wingers
Attack right wing Winger right winger
Winger right wing back
Scoring forwards
Passing right winger
Passing right inner midfielder
Winger forwards
Passing forwards
Defence right wing Defending right wing back
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending right central defender
Defending right winger
Defending goalkeeper
Defending right inner midfielder


Every week you get to choose what kind of training you want your players to concentrate on in training sessions. The effects of the weekly training always appear during Thursday or Friday, depending on the country, so you have to change your training orders before this. Changes in players' current form and background form also occur at this time.

Player age and skill level

Younger players are in general faster learners than older players, but how much your player will learn from training also depends on the skill levels he's at – the lower the skill level the faster the training. Training on very low skill levels is many times faster than on medium skill levels, and training on very high skill levels is slower than on medium skill levels.

Apart from age and skill level there are four factors deciding the effects of training: the intensity of training, training type, the amount of stamina training, and the coaching staff (head coach and assistants).

Intensity of training

The harder you train, the better the squad's form becomes in general, and effects from training increase. You decide the intensity of training by supplying a number between 0 and 100. The drawback of a high level of intensity is that risks for injuries increase. You'll have to decide yourself what level of intensity will suit you - do ask other managers on the forums.

Significantly decreasing intensity can provide a 'one-time' boost to team spirit. Once you order your players to train with more intensity again, their team spirit will understandably drop with this news. If you want to change the training intensity please keep in mind that the new value must have been entered at the latest one update before the training update.

Training type

There are 12 types of training to choose from. All of them make your players better at something. The different types of training are shown in the table below.

Coaching staff

If you have a good coach, training will be more effective than if you have a bad one. Assistant coaches also increase the effect of training.

Stamina training

Stamina must be trained every week, as a percentage of the total training of the team. Its efficiency will drop at higher intensity levels – it's better to train a little every week than a lot now and then. Older players will need more training every week to maintain a certain stamina level, which in turn means that managers will have to find the appropriate stamina training share for their particular squad and ambitions. Players that have played for at least 90 minutes during the week receive 100% of the team's stamina training effect. Players playing less than 90 minutes (subs for example) receive 75% of the effect, plus a share for each minute they've played. Other squad players (including subs who do not get to play) receive only half the effect.

Stamina training affects the overall form of your team negatively; the more stamina you train the more the negative effect on form. It should be noted that only current form, not background form, is affected by stamina training and the different training types.

Basic Principles

The amount of training a player receives depends on how many minutes he has played for your team in a trainable position during the week. Training should be combined with "live action", so to speak A player can receive 90 minutes training during a week. Playing more than 90 minutes in a trainable position will not give him more training. Playing less, for example 50 minutes, will give him less training – in this case 50 minutes out of 90.

Repositioned players get their match training from their new position. Players with individual orders get their match training from their normal positions. If a player has played in two different positions during the week, the position that grants him the best training effect will be chosen at the update.

It doesn't matter if the player plays in a friendly game, a cup match or a league game - they're all just as effective from a training point of view. If you show up for a match, but your opponent doesn't, you will win by walkover - and your players will get full training effect, as in a normal game.

Brackets indicate small effects. Double brackets indicate very small effects.

Training type Improves ...for...
General (Form) (Form) (All players playing match)
(Goalkeeping) ((Goalkeepers))
Set pieces Set pieces All players on the pitch, 25% bonus to the set pieces taker and goalkeeper
Defending Defending Defenders ((All players playing match))
Scoring Scoring Forwards ((All players playing match))
Crossing (Winger) Winger Wingers (Wing backs) ((All players playing match))
Shooting (Scoring) (All players playing match)
(Set pieces ) ((All players playing match))
Short passes Passing Inner midfielders, wingers and forwards ((All players playing match))
Playmaking Playmaking Inner midfielders (Wingers) ((All players playing match))
Goalkeeping Goalkeeping Goalkeepers
Through passes Passing Defenders, inner midfielders and wingers ((All players playing match))
Defensive positions Defending (Goalkeepers, defenders, inner midfielders and wingers) ((All players playing match))
Wing attacks Winger Forwards and wingers ((All players playing match))
Individual (Youth Academy only) Valuable skill(s) for the position played in match (All players playing match)


The team trains "Crossing" (winger) this week. Please note that your actual match day may vary - Sunday refers to the weekend league match, while Wednesday is the midweek friendly/cup match.

  • Adam Adams played 90 minutes as a winger Sunday but missed the Wednesday game. He receives 90 minutes full winger training.
  • Bert McBert played 90 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a forward Wednesday. He also receives 90 minutes full winger training.
  • Carl Carlson played 50 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a wing defender Wednesday. He receives 50 minutes full winger training and 40 minutes winger training with small effect.
  • David Davis played 40 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a forward Wednesday. He receives 40 minutes full winger training and 50 minutes winger training with very small ("osmosis") effect.
  • Freddie Fred plays 90 minutes as a wingback both Sunday and Wednesday. He still only receives 90 minutes winger training with small effect.
  • Gus O'Gumby didn't play on either Sunday or Wednesday. He doesn't improve his skill at all.

Skill decrease

When a player gets closer to the age of 30, he loses a little of his abilities each week. How big the decrease is depends on how old the player is and the level of skill he is at. The higher level of skill the player is at, the bigger decrease. Older players also suffer from bigger decreases than younger ones.

Players at the highest skill levels, around divine, may experience a decrease even at younger age, making further training on that particular skill less appealing.

The coach

Your coach is an important person responsible for training and inspiring your players.

Coach abilities

Skill: A skilled coach knows the right methods to train players in order to make them better. The more talented your coach is, the more effective training will be. A coach can never be better than excellent. All new teams get a weak coach to start with.

Leadership: Apart from planning training activities, your coach is also an inspirational source for your players. Your team spirit will be better in general if your coach is a good leader.

Tactics: Your coach can be offensive, defensive or neutral, which (only) affects your team’s performance during the game. An offensive coach improves your attack at the expense of your defence and a defensive coach improves your defence at the expense of your attack. A defensive coach improves defence slightly more than an offensive improves attack, to the same expense. A neutral coach is neither offensive nor defensive, which means he doesn’t aid any team part or incur any penalties.

Ability deterioration

After your coach has been in your club for one season, his leadership skill will start to slowly deteriorate. Once your coach reaches disastrous leadership, the deterioration starts hitting his trainer skill instead.

Change coach

If you are not satisfied with your coach you can either recruit an new external one or make one of your players coach. You change coach from the training caption, under "your club" menu.

Remember, all new trainers of a certain skill level are equal. If you purchase a coach with passable trainer skill for example, he always becomes "average" passable (an excellent coach is however only 1/2 step greater than a solid coach).

When you hire a new coach your old coach will remain in the team as a player, but he can never become trainer again and you can not sell him either. If you don't want to keep him, you will have to fire him.

Recruit an external coach

When you recruit a new coach you first decide what tactical type of coach you want, and then you decide how good you want him to be. Each combination of leadership and skill has a fixed price, the better trainer the higher price.

Make a player coach

When you turn a player into coach he will keep his current leadership. His experience determines how skilled he can become, and also how much the course the reach a certain skill level costs. So, if you have a very experienced player with high leadership, this can be a real bargain. The player must however have been in your squad for a season (16 weeks) before you can make him a coach.


As the club manager you are also responsible for your team's finances. You pay the expenses and collect the income of the week every weekend (check the upcoming activities for the exact time in your league), until then your income/expenses are stacked. If you for example buy a player for 10 000 US$ the player is accessible immediately, and your "temporary costs" entry is increased by 10 000 US$. On the finances page you can see your cash funds (and in parenthesis what they look like when taking the current week's entries into calculation).

Revenues and expenses

On the finances page you can see your budget for this week and last week's financial status. This is what the entries mean:


Crowd: Your income from league matches at home and mid-week matches. See the arena chapter for more information on crowd income.

Sponsors: Each week you get a sum of money from your sponsors. Check the "Fans and sponsors" chapter for more info.

Financial: If you have an accountant on the payroll, he will earn you some financial income. Note that maximum weekly sum you can get is 25 000 € (no matter how much money and how many accountants you have).

Temporary: All your one-off incomes are accumulated here, such as player sales, membership fees from supporters and prize money.


Arena: The weekly cost for running and servicing your arena. See the arena chapter for more info.

Wages: Each week you pay your players' salaries. For each player you pay 250 € plus a certain amount based on his skills and age. You pay 20% extra for players who are playing abroad.

Interest: If you're in debt you will have to pay some interest.

Temporary: All your one-off costs are accumulated here, such as player purchases, specialist firing and promoting youth players to your senior team.

Staff: Each specialist cost you 1 800 € a week.

Youth expenses: The weekly costs for your youth academy, or your weekly investment in your junior squad.

Debts and bankruptcy

There's nothing to keep you from spending money even if your balance is zero. You have a line of credit for 500 000 US$ at the bank, but you're going to have to pay some heavy interest on this borrowed money. If you run up debts amounting to 500 000 US$ you'll be given a bankruptcy warning. If you do not return your balance to within the 500 000 US$ debt limit within two weeks of your bankruptcy warning, you will be forced to leave the Hattrick series system! However, long before you reach this limit your interest costs will have become insurmountable, so stay clear of that limit! Also remember that accountants don't credit any interest at all when you're over 500 000 US$ in debt, so don't count on them saving you.

Fans and sponsors

The arena


Lineup: Experience and confusion

Match: Set pieces and special events

Match: Tactics




Youth players

The series system

The cup


National teams

Hattrick Masters

See also

Internal links

External links