Petah-Tikva (Peh-Tahkh Teehq-Vah Hebrew פֶּתַח-תִּקְוָה "opening of hope", Petach Tikva, Petah Tikvah, Petach Tikvah, Petakh Tiqwa or Petach Tiqwa) and nicknamed as "Mother of Cities", is a city in the west of the Center District of Israel, north-east of Tel Aviv. Petah-Tikva is the second largest industrialised city in Israel (after Haifa). As of 2003 its population was 173,700.
Petah-Tikva's industries include textiles, metal works, wood industry, plastics, processed foods, tires and other rubber products, and soap. In the last years many hi-tech enterprises moved to Petah-Tikva's industrial zone.
There are extensive citrus groves on the outskirts, and building stone is quarried nearby.
Petah-Tikva was founded in 1878 by former residents of Jerusalem hoping to escape the cramped quarters of Jerusalem's walls. Hence the nickname "Mother of Cities" (the next Jewish-only town created was Rishon LeZion in 1882). It was the first modern Jewish agricultural settlement in Palestine and has since grown to become one of Israel's most populous urban centres.
It met with some difficulties along the way as the settlers were not adept at agriculture and had trouble drying the swamps in the area. The area was abandoned and re-settled in 1882 with immigrants of the first aliyah.
Petah-Tikva is a sister city of two North American locations : Chicago, Illinois in the United States and Laval, Quebec in Canada.