From Hattrick


The latest version of the rules can always be found at: Hattrick Rules
This is the manual for Hattrick. For a quicker introduction to the game go to the beginners' guide.


Hattrick is a game where you get to lead a virtual football team to glory, in competition with other participants from all over the world. Hattrick is a simple game, it's easy to grasp the basics. You can play Hattrick even if you just log in once or twice a week (but we hope to see you more often). The challenge is not to beat the game, the challenge lies within the competition with the other participants. While competing, many participants become friends, making Hattrick also a social game.

Your overall tasks

You perform the duties of both manager and club owner. You plan tactics and strategy, decide what to train and select which players that should play. You buy and sell players, invest in arena improvements and much more. To be successful a good piece of advice is to form a good strategy and a long term plan. Success and glory will not come for free, after all.

Your new team

When you take charge of your team it has just got a vacant slot in any of the two lowest divisions in the Hattrick series system. To start your climb upwards you got a squad of players (some might be talented and some might not…), an arena and some money to your aid. Now it's time for you to show your magic.

Don't worry about second thoughts when it comes to your team name. You can always change your team name in between seasons, but it will cost you 10 000 € and some of your fans will leave your fan club.

Region and weather

Your team belongs to region, a region which you probably have a relation to. Regions are there so you can check out other people from the same area as you. Another important function is that each region has its own weather. No regions have better weather than others, all regions are equally good so you don't have to worry about making a bad choice.

Weather affects a couple of things, but most importantly attendance (less people will watch your games when it's raining). At the "Region" page you can see what the weather is like today and a weather forecast for tomorrow. If the sun shines today, it's more likely (compared to other weather types) that it also shines tomorrow, so weather isn't completely random.

If you want, you can change region in the season break. It will however cost you 10 000 € and 3% of your fans will leave your fan club.

Our best piece of advice

The best piece of advice we can give you is to read this manual. You don't need to read everything at once, just reading the first chapters to start with will give you a good clue how to play the game. If there is any other advice it would be to ask any question you may have in our forums. There is actually a forum designed just for questions.

There is only one thing we insist on: to give you and everyone else the best Hattrick experience there are some very simple rules of conduct to follow which you can find in our house rules.

Players: Skills

Each player has 8 basic skills, while there are also some additional factors affecting their performance in different situations. Let's have a rundown on the various skills first:

Stamina: Decides how much of his ability to perform a player loses during the course of the match.
Playmaking: The ability to control the ball and turn it into scoring opportunities.
Scoring: The ball is supposed to go into the net.
Winger: The ability to finish off scoring opportunities by advancing down the sides.
Goalkeeping: The ball should not make it into your own net.
Passing: Players who know how to pass the decisive pass are a great help for the team's attack.
Defending: The ability to stop opponent attacks.
Set Pieces: The outcome of your free kicks and penalties depends on how skilled your set pieces taker is.

How good is your player?

In real life you say a football player is a "quite OK winger" or a "really good defender" when you see him play. In Hattrick, we do the same to describe how good players are. We use denominations (and not only for players), and for players' skills the scale goes from non-existent to divine. You can see the full denominations scales.

Different players need different skills

All players don't need to be good in all skills, but stamina is important for everyone. Sometimes it is good enough if a player is good in just one skill (other than stamina), but you will get the most out of your player if he is good on several skills. Which skills (apart from stamina) a player benefits from depends on the position he will play:

Goalkeepers: Goalkeeping is needless to say important for goalkeepers, and only goalkeepers. They also make good use out of being good defenders.
Central defenders: Defenders should naturally have a lot of defending. Playmaking is also beneficial, and their passing skill really makes a difference when counter-attacking (see tactic chapter).
Wing backs: Defending is most important, but they also benefit a lot from being good wingers. They contribute a little with their playmaking skill, and passing helps when counter-attacking.
Inner Midfielders: Having good playmakers in the inner midfield positions is a key ingredient for most successful teams. They also use their passing and defending skills a lot.
Wingers: Naturally profit from being good wingers, but playmaking is also important. In addition, they also use both their passing and defending skill.
Forwards: Their number one task is to score goals, making scoring their number one skill. Passing is also valuable, and so is winger.

Changes in skills

The skills slowly change over time. All skills can be improved by training as long as the player lives, but as players get older they will also start losing a little of their skills. Everything about changes in skills is described in the chapter about training.

Players: Other attributes


You can see players' exact age on the player page. One Hattrick year is 112 days, which means all players are a certain age and 0-111 days.


All players have a personality. They can be nice or nasty, leaders or loners, temperamental or calm. Right now the personality does not affect much in the game, but it’s for example wise to appoint a team captain with good leader abilities. More info about how personality affects the game is found in the psychology chapter.


Experience simulates that an older player has managed to learn things not directly concerning his skills, which positively affects his actions on the field.


Players with high loyalty to the club perform better on the pitch. Loyalty increases with time spent at the club.

There are two types of loyalty:

Player loyalty bonus

For each consecutive day you have a player in your team, he will get a little bit more attached and loyal to your team. And the more attached and loyal he gets, the better he will play.
Loyalty is gained faster in the beginning, then slower and slower over time. Maximum loyalty is reached after three seasons, but the halfway point is reached after 12 weeks.
Maximum bonus: +1 skill level on all skills (stamina excluded)
Example: Tommy Wright is a solid playmaker with passable defending, and he has max (divine) loyalty. He will then perform as if he was an excellent playmaker with solid defending (and this will also be reflected in his star rating).
When a player reaches divine loyalty he gets the full bonus. Your youth players start with divine loyalty.
Please note that a player loses his loyalty to your club if you sell him to another club. So if you later buy him back, you have to build up his loyalty from scratch again.

Mother club bonus

Players that play for their mother club, such as your youth players, and have done so through their whole career always give a little bit extra on the pitch, as they hold a special place for the club in their hearts.
Bonus: +0.5 skill level on all skills (stamina excluded).
Players that have been playing for their mother club their whole career are indicated with a heart icon on their player page. Please note that any youth players sold and then re-bought will not get this bonus.

Gaining both bonuses

It is perfectly possible for a player to get both bonuses. So when you promote a youth player (it naturally doesn't matter which youth system you use) to your senior squad, he will get a 1.5 skill level bonus on all skills (excluding stamina) until you sell him.

Total Skill Index (TSI)

Total Skill Index is a measurement of how skilled a player is. TSI increases with training and can also increase (and decrease) with form.


The better form a player is in, the better he will perform. It’s not about the physical context though, it has nothing to do with how well trained a player is. Form in Hattrick reflects a combination of aspects making it possible for, or preventing a player, from reaching his full potential – like for example how his private situation in life is at the moment.

On the player page you can see a player’s "current form". It's the figure applied for matches. An "excellent" player in "wretched" form is usually worse off than a "passable" player in "solid" form for example. Current form is negatively affected by the amount of stamina training in the team; the more stamina you train (percentage-wise) the more negative effect. Training "General (form)" will on the other hand have a positive effect on form.

Additionally, there's a hidden "background form", which is used to compute where the player's form is heading. Each week, during training, the current form of every player will change, moving towards the hidden background form. Current form is not changed immediately to the figure of background form. Instead it moves in steps over several weeks, though the further away from background form they are the larger the steps will be.

After current form has been changed during training, there is a chance that background form is changed for each player. Every player has the same individual chance of having his background form change, and there is nothing you can do to influence this chance. However, when chance decrees that a player's background form will change, there are several factors that influence what the new background form will be:

  • If a player has participated in a match during the week. This is very important!
  • Training intensity – the harder you train, the better form in general
  • Your coach – the better skilled he is, the better form in general
  • Assistant coaches – Assistants also help improve form


About half of all players have a characteristic called "speciality", which has impact on matches. There are 5 different main specialities available for players: "Technical", "Quick", "Head", "Powerful" and "Unpredictable”. Every main speciality has a good and a bad side, explained in the Special Events chapter. Specialities can also be useful for certain tactic types as explained in the Tactics chapter.

Some rare specialities also exist. Their effects are more or less unknown and up to you to find out.


Sometimes players get injured. If this is the case, the injury, unless very slight, will put them on the treatment table for a couple of games. The risk of injuries increases as the team increases the intensity of training, but you can also hire physiotherapists to reduce the risk of injuries.

Older players take a longer time to heal, and doctors can be hired to help players heal faster. Players approaching their forties will have a hard time to recover at all though. Also remember that the injury times stated are only estimates - if your star forward has a week-long injury, it might take him 8 or 9 days to get fit again.

Yellow and red cards

Players may get booked or sent off during games, highly aggressive players (especially those with low honesty and lacking experience) more often than others. 2 bookings during a match will automatically lead to the player getting sent off. Getting sent off means that the player is suspended from the next competitive game. A player will also be suspended for one match after accumulating 3 bookings from competitive games during a season. Bookings from league, cup, and qualifying games are all counted as the same. If a player has already been booked twice in league matches one season, and receives another booking in a following cup match, he will be suspended from the next competitive match, regardless of if it's a league match, cup match or qualifier.

You can check your players list for how many bookings your players have received before a match. A player who has accumulated 3 bookings or has been sent off in his last match will have a red card symbol on the players list, to show his suspension. The suspended players booking slate is wiped when a competitive match has been played. Also, all player slates are wiped at the end of the season. A player can't get a suspension (or get his slate wiped) from a friendly game.

Lineup: The basics

As the manager for your team you decide how your team will play and which formation to use. Before each match you submit your decision – your match orders – through the order form found in the match list. Your match orders need to be submitted at least 20 minutes before the start of the game, but remember that the watch of the referee may not agree with yours, so try to avoid last-minute orders if you can. You can also make a match order a "standard setup" (which we recommend you to do for reasons of precaution). This means that Hattrick will assume this setup for future games but you can always adjust your setup according to the particular circumstances affecting matches ahead.

Starting lineup and substitutes

For each match you select your starting eleven players, your substitutes, your set pieces taker and your team captain. In the order form you choose which player goes where by drag and drop.

If one of your players gets injured, the substitute for that position will enter the pitch. If you don't have a substitute assigned to a certain position, or if the substitute is injured as well, one of the other substitutes will automatically get selected to play. If you don't have any able substitutes you'll have to continue the game with 10 players. If you're out of subs and your goalkeeper gets injured (or if you haven't named any), an outfield player will move to that spot. You can also set up conditional substitutions. See the substitutions chapter for more info.


Remember that you must start your league or cup games with at least 9 players to avoid a walkover, which also means the effect of training for the whole week will be lost.

If you fail to field at least 9 players in non-competitive or youth matches, then the boys from the neighbourhood will replace your team. Contrary to competitive matches, this will not have a negative impact on the training received by players who have been fielded in a competitive match that week.

Penalty takers

This function only applies under special circumstances. If a cup game, qualifier or a friendly played with cup rules ends in a draw after extra time, a penalty contest is held. Before these matches you should decide the order of your penalty takers. This can be done with a special orders form. You can find it via the link at the bottom of the default orders page or in a separate section on the advanced orders page.

The player's experience, his skill at set pieces and scoring, and his specialty (if any) should be taken into consideration. The player least skilled at these abilities should be at the bottom of this list - penalty contests rarely exceed 10 penalties. Note that the first penalty taker is always the same as the one taking the set pieces during the regular game. If you change the first name on the special orders form for penalty contests, this is the same as changing the regular orders form on set pieces. The other 10 penalty takers can only be changed by using the special orders form.

As for the order of the first 5 penalty takers, this isn't important. All teams start off with five penalties each, and if the game's still a draw after this, it'll proceed with the teams taking one penalty each until it's all been decided.

Individual orders =

In the orders list youcan set tactics for each individual position. Apart from "normal" there are two types of settings you can choose. (Note this difference, it's important!)

  • Individual orders: The player stays in his ordinary position, but moves in a certain direction. For example, an inner midfielder might get a "Defensive" order. He's still an inner midfielder, contributing to playmaking, but he tends to concentrate more on the defensive side than normal, and less on attacking.
  • Repositioning: The player gets a completely different position than normal. An example: "Inner midfielder 1" gets repositioned to play as an "extra central defender". He takes on the role of a centraldefender, just like an ordinary centraldefender. This means you've changed from the normal 4-4-2 lineup to a 5-3-2 tactic! Note that he's still called "Inner midfielder 1" (for ease of identification), but he plays in the position of a central defender.

It's only by repositioning players that you can switch formations from the normal 4-4-2. A team where all players receive individual "Defensive" orders is still considered a 4-4-2 lineup, albeit an extremely defensive one.

There are 4 types of individual orders possible (you don't need to memorize these, the individual orders possible for each position are evident from the orders list):

  • Offensive (not possible for forwards - their normal setting is already offensive).
  • Defensive (not possible for central defenders).
  • Towards wing (central defenders, inner midfielders and forwards - these take on a role resembling their wing counterparts).
  • Towards middle (only wingers and wing backs - makes them more like inner midfielders/central defenders).
Position Tactics Effect
Wing back Offensive More Winger, somewhat more Playmaking, less Defending
Defensive More Defending, less Winger, somewhat less Playmaking
Towards middle More Defending to the middle, less Defending to the side, less Winger
Central defender Offensive Somewhat more Playmaking, less Defending
Towards wing More Defending to the side, less Defending in the middle, a certain amount of Winger, somewhat less Playmaking
Winger Offensive More Winger, somewhat more passing, less Defending, somewhat less Playmaking
Defensive More Defending, less Winger, somewhat less Playmaking and Passing
Towards middle More Playmaking, less Winger, more defending in the middle, less Defending to the side, more Passing in the middle, less Passing to the side
Inner midfielder Offensive More Passing, less Defending, somewhat less Playmaking
Defensive More Defending, less Passing, somewhat less Playmaking
Towards wing A nice amount of Winger, somewhat less Playmaking, more Passing on the side and less Passing in the middle
Forward Defensive A certain amount of Playmaking, more Passing (and even more Passing if Technical), less Scoring, somewhat less Winger
Towards wing More Winger, more Scoring and Passing on the side, less Scoring and Passing in the middle

Match: The basics

Finding the right lineup is one of your biggest challenges in Hattrick. In this and the other match chapters we will focus on how the players’ skills come into play in a match. This chapter will give you the basics - the most important things to know.

The basics of the match simulation

In each half a number of attacks are made, and the midfield decides which team gets each attack. The team with the strongest midfield (the team with the most ball possession) is most likely to get the largest number of attacks. When a team gets an attack it is decided what kind of attack it is. There are three types of attacks (right wing, left wing, centre), and set pieces (free kicks and penalties) also. The attacking team’s attack for that sector will then try to break through the defending team’s defence for that sector.

The basic attacks

In each match a number of basic attacks (as explained above) are made. Some of these attacks are open, and can be taken by either team, and some are exclusive for one team only.

For open attacks, the midfield decides which team gets each attack. Exclusive attacks work in the same fashion, with one exception: If your midfield “win” one of your opponent's exclusive attacks; you stop the attack – but you don't get it yourself. You can't get your opponent's exclusive chances, and they can't get yours.

Most of the basic attacks are reported in the match report, but attacks a long way from leading to goals are not reported. You may also gain additional attacks from "Special Events" and from counter-attacks. These additional attacks are described in the other two match chapters.

Home team advantage

The home team is helped by their fans. Ordinarily you have a larger percentage of possession at home than away. In a derby (when both teams are from the same region) the home team also receives this advantage, while the away team receives about half the advantage. If the game is played on neutral ground, neither team receives any advantage.

Psychology and the coach's mentality

Team spirit, confidence and team attitude affect how well your team performs. You can read all about how Hattrick simulates these in the "Psychology" chapter. The coach's mentality (if he's offensive, defensive or neutral) also plays a part. Read more about this in the "The coach" chapter.

Team rating is the rating you should focus on

After a match has been played, you will get a team rating for each part of the team. These ratings tell you how well different parts of your team performed in the match and these ratings are also what matters in the actual match calculation.

Star rating

After a match your players receive a star rating for their performance in the match. The more stars, the better the performance.

Please note that the star rating only rates the individual player performance on his particular position and is useful for comparing different players playing in the same position. It's not an ideal way to measure team strength. To know how your whole team performed (and compare with other teams), look at the team ratings.

Please also be aware that team effects (such as the contribution loss for more than one player in a central position, see basic lineup chapter) is not reflected in the star rating.

A normal case

The following table will help you somewhat when you select your team. Note that it's only an approximation. Some levels of abilities following each other may mean only slight differences in performance, and for others the differences might be much larger. In addition, individual orders (see specific chapter) have not been taken into consideration.

Part of team Factors (most important first)
Midfield Playmaking inner midfielders
Playmaking wingers
Playmaking defenders
Playmaking wingbacks
Attack left wing Winger left winger
Winger left wing back
Scoring forwards
Passing left winger
Passing left inner midfielder
Winger forwards
Passing forwards
Defence left wing Defending left wing back
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending left central defender
Defending left winger
Defending goalkeeper
Defending left inner midfielder
Attack centre Scoring forwards
Passing forwards
Passing inner midfielders
Passing wingers
Defence centre Defending central defenders
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending wing backs
Defending inner midfielders
Defending goalkeeper
Defending wingers
Attack right wing Winger right winger
Winger right wing back
Scoring forwards
Passing right winger
Passing right inner midfielder
Winger forwards
Passing forwards
Defence right wing Defending right wing back
Goalkeeping goalkeeper
Defending right central defender
Defending right winger
Defending goalkeeper
Defending right inner midfielder


Every week you get to choose what kind of training you want your players to concentrate on in training sessions. The effects of the weekly training always appear during Thursday or Friday, depending on the country, so you have to change your training orders before this. Changes in players' current form and background form also occur at this time.

Player age and skill level

Younger players are in general faster learners than older players, but how much your player will learn from training also depends on the skill levels he's at – the lower the skill level the faster the training. Training on very low skill levels is many times faster than on medium skill levels, and training on very high skill levels is slower than on medium skill levels.

Apart from age and skill level there are four factors deciding the effects of training: the intensity of training, training type, the amount of stamina training, and the coaching staff (head coach and assistants).

Intensity of training

The harder you train, the better the squad's form becomes in general, and effects from training increase. You decide the intensity of training by supplying a number between 0 and 100. The drawback of a high level of intensity is that risks for injuries increase. You'll have to decide yourself what level of intensity will suit you - do ask other managers on the conferences.

Significantly decreasing intensity can provide a 'one-time' boost to team spirit. Once you order your players to train with more intensity again, their team spirit will understandably drop with this news.

Training type

There are 12 types of training to choose from. All of them make your players better at something. The different types of training are shown in the table below.

Coaching staff

If you have a good coach, training will be more effective than if you have a bad one. Assistant coaches also increase the effect of training.

Stamina training

Stamina must be trained every week, as a percentage of the total training of the team. Its efficiency will drop at higher intensity levels – it's better to train a little every week than a lot now and then. Older players will need more training every week to maintain a certain stamina level, which in turn means that managers will have to find the appropriate stamina training share for their particular squad and ambitions. Players that have played a match during the week receive 100% of the team's stamina training effect. Other squad players (including subs who do not get to play) receive only half the effect.

Stamina training affects the overall form of your team negatively; the more stamina you train the more the negative effect on form. It should be noted that only current form, not background form, is affected by stamina training and the different training types.

Basic Principles

The amount of training a player receives depends on how many minutes he has played for your team in a trainable position during the week. Training should be combined with "live action", so to speak A player can receive 90 minutes training during a week. Playing more than 90 minutes in a trainable position will not give him more training. Playing less, for example 50 minutes, will give him less training – in this case 50 minutes out of 90.

Repositioned players get their match training from their new position. Players with individual orders get their match training from their normal positions. If a player has played in two different positions during the week, the position that grants him the best training effect will be chosen at the update.

It doesn't matter if the player plays in a friendly game, a cup match or a league game - they're all just as effective from a training point of view. If you show up for a match, but your opponent doesn't, you will win by walk-over - and your players will get full training effect, as in a normal game.

Brackets indicate small effects. Double brackets indicate very small effects.

Training type Improves ...for...
General (Form) (All players playing match)
(Goalkeeping) ((Goalkeepers))
Set pieces Set pieces All players on the pitch, 25% bonus to the set pieces taker and goalkeeper
Defending Defending Defenders ((All players playing match))
Scoring Scoring Forwards ((All players playing match))
Crossing (Winger) Winger Wingers (Wing backs) ((All players playing match))
Shooting Scoring (All players playing match)
(Set pieces) ((All players playing match))
Short passes Passing Inner midfielders, wingers and forwards ((All players playing match))
Playmaking Midfield Inner midfielders (Wingers) ((All players playing match))
Goalkeeping Goalkeeping Goalkeepers
Through passes Passing Defenders, inner midfielders and wingers ((All players playing match))
Defensive positions Defending (Goalkeepers, defenders, inner midfielders and wingers) ((All players playing match))
Wing attacks Winger Forwards and wingers ((All players playing match))
Individual (Youth academy only) Valuable skill(s) for the position played in match (All players playing match)


The team trains "Crossing" (winger) this week. Please note that your actual match day may vary - Sunday refers to the weekend league match, while Wednesday is the midweek friendly/cup match.

  • Adam Adams played 90 minutes as a winger Sunday but missed the Wednesday game. He receives 90 minutes full winger training.
  • Bert McBert played 90 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a forward Wednesday. He also receives 90 minutes full winger training.
  • Carl Carlson played 50 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a wing defender Wednesday. He receives 50 minutes full winger training and 40 minutes winger training with small effect.
  • David Davis played 40 minutes as a winger Sunday and 90 minutes as a forward Wednesday. He receives 40 minutes full winger training and 50 minutes winger training with very small ("osmosis") effect.
  • Freddie Fred plays 90 minutes as a wingback both Sunday and Wednesday. He still only receives 90 minutes winger training with small effect.

Gus O'Gumby didn't play on either Sunday or Wednesday. He doesn't improve his skill at all.

Skill decrease

When a player gets closer to the age of 30, he loses a little of his abilities each week. How big the decrease is depends on how old the player is and the level of skill he is at. The higher level of skill the player is at, the bigger decrease. Older players also suffer from bigger decreases than younger ones. Players at the highest skill levels, around divine, may experience a decrease even at younger age, making further training on that particular skill less appealing.

The Coach

Your coach is an important person responsible for training and inspiring your players.

Coach abilities

Skill: A skilled coach knows the right methods to train players in order to make them better. The more talented your coach is, the more effective training will be. A coach can never be better than excellent. All new teams get a passable coach to start with.

Leadership: Apart from planning training activities, your coach is also an inspirational source for your players. Your team spirit will be better in general if your coach is a good leader.

Tactics: Your coach can be offensive, defensive or neutral, which (only) affects your team's performance during the game. An offensive coach improves your attack at the expense of your defence and a defensive coach improves your defence at the expense of your attack. A defensive coach improves defence slightly more than an offensive improves attack, to the same expense. A neutral coach is neither offensive nor defensive, which means he doesn't aid any team part or incur any penalties.

Ability deterioration

After your coach has been in your club for one season, his leadership skill will start to slowly deteriorate. Once your coach reaches disastrous leadership, the deterioration starts hitting his trainer skill instead.

Change coach

If you are not satisfied with your coach you can either recruit an new external one or make one of your players coach. You change coach from the training caption, under "your club" menu.

Remember, all new trainers of a certain skill level are equal. If you purchase a coach with passable trainer skill for example, he always becomes "average" passable (an excellent coach is however only 1/2 step greater than a solid coach).

When you hire a new coach your old coach will remain in the team as a player, but he can never become trainer again and you can not sell him either. If you don't want to keep him, you will have to fire him.

Recruit an external coach

When you recruit a new coach you first decide what tactical type of coach you want, and then you decide how good you want him to be. Each combination of leadership and skill has a fixed price, the better trainer the higher price.

Make a player coach

When you turn a player into coach he will keep his current leadership. His experience determines how skilled he can become, and also how much the course to reach a certain skill level costs. So, if you have a very experienced player with high leadership, this can be a real bargain. The player must however have been in your squad for a season (16 weeks) before you can make him a coach.


As the club manager you are also responsible for your team's finances. You pay the expenses and collect the income at the weekly update. You can see the exact time this happens in your league on the Local Schedule page. If you for example buy a player for 10 000 € the player is accessible immediately, and your "new signings" entry is increased by 10 000 €. Most importantly, the finances page shows your current cash funds, with the number in brackets showing your funds for next week (after the weekly update).

Revenues and expenses

On the finances page you can see your budget for this week and last week's financial status. This is what the entries mean:


Match takings: Your income from league matches at home and mid-week matches. See Chapter 10 'The Arena' for more information on crowd income.
Sponsors: Each week you get a sum of money from your sponsors. Check the 'Fans and sponsors' chapter for more info
Player sales: Whenever you sell a player, the income ends up here. See the 'Transfers' chapter for more info.
Commission: If you receive any money for being the previous club or mother club of a player, it will show here. See the 'Transfers' chapter for more info.
Other: Any other income is accumulated here, such as membership fees from fans and prize money.


Wages: Each week you pay your players' salaries. For each player you pay 250 € plus a certain amount based on his skills and age. You pay 20% extra for players who are playing abroad.
Arena maintenance: The weekly cost for running and servicing your arena. See chapter 10 'The Arena' for more info.
Arena building: Construction or removal costs if you alter your arena.
Staff: Each staff member costs you 1 800 € per week.
Youth scouting: The weekly costs for your youth academy, or the weekly investment in your scouting network.
New signings: Your costs for buying new players from the transfer market appear here. See the 'Transfers' chapter for more info.
Other: The remaining costs are accumulated here, such as firing staff and promoting players to your senior team.
Interest: If you're in debt you will have to pay some interest.

Debts and bankruptcy

There's nothing to keep you from spending money even if your balance is zero. You have a line of credit for 500 000 € at the bank, but you're going to have to pay some heavy interest on this borrowed money. If you run up debts amounting to 500 000 € you'll be given a bankruptcy warning. If you do not return your balance to within the 500 000 € debt limit within two weeks of your bankruptcy warning, you will be forced to leave the Hattrick series system!

Fans and sponsors

Both sponsors and fans control important sources of income. Therefore it is strongly advised to have a good relation with them and keep their mood up - it will pay off in the end.

Fan mood

The members of your fan club decide a lot when it comes to your team’s economy. Membership fees are paid once a year, but more importantly their mood decides a lot when it comes to your income from arena ticket sales.

The easiest way to keep their mood up, and attract more fans, is to match (or even exceed) their expectations. Fans current mood can be seen on the fans page.

Season expectations

At the start of every season, fans will tell you what they expect of the team. Their expectations depend mostly on what happened last season, what fans expected then and what the outcome was.

As your team advances (or drops) in the league system, your fans will slowly get used to the new situation. If you just got promoted, fans will not expect much from you. But if you are staying put in the same division year after year, fans will have a tendency to hope for just a little more.

Match expectations

The season expectations in turn influence the expectations for each game. On the Fans page you can see what the fans expect from each game. Generally, fans expect more from you when you play at home.

If the match result is what they expected, they will like you in case of a win (and not become so very disappointed if expectations of a loss tallies with a defeat). If the result is better than their expectations, their mood will be even better. But if the result is worse than their expectations, it will affect their mood negatively.

At the start of the season, match expectations are based on the seasonal hopes of both teams' fans. As the season progresses, the actual league position and amount of points of both teams becomes more important. In cup matches, fans base their match expectations only on the seasonal hopes (including division level) of both teams.

Team attitude and your cash reserve influence fans

Telling your players to "Play it cool" or play the "Match of the Season" also influences the fan reaction to the match result. If the result is as expected (or better), playing it cool will reduce the positive effect and match of the season will increase the positive effect. If the result is worse than expected, playing it cool will increase the negative effect and match of the season will reduce the negative effect.

If you have a lot of money in your cash reserve, your fans will be a bit harder to please as they feel you have money to invest to reach success. Rich teams’ fans react stronger to losses and weaker to wins than fans of a poorer clubs. The more money your team holds, the higher significance these feelings have.


Sponsors prefer supporting a club sporting a good "image" to which they can be connected. The more successful your team is and the bigger your team’s fan club is, the better image (and the more sponsor money) you’ll get. Spokespersons also help to improve the club's image. Your sponsors' mood can be seen on the economy page.

The Arena

Your club will start off with a small stadium, which you will have the opportunity to improve throughout your Hattrick career. You have four different types of stands to choose from, at various costs and income possibilities, attracting different types of spectators.

Construction cost Weekly cost Income
Terrace places 45 € 0.50 € 6.50 €
Regular seats 75 € 0.70 € 9.50 €
Seats under a roof 90 € 1.00 € 13.00 €
Seats in VIP lounge 300 € 2.50 € 32.50 €

As you remove stands the cost is 6.0 € per individual seat, regardless of type. There's also a set price of 10 000 € per conversion (apart from the cost per seat), regardless of how much rebuilding (or removing) there is to be done at that time.

In the match reports from home games you're able to see how many seats were sold in each separate type of stand. The income from matches is distributed differently between clubs depending on what type of match it is.

League matches: The home team takes all the income.
Cup matches: The home team takes two-thirds of the income and away team gets one-third
Friendlies and qualifiers: Income is split evenly.

Your crowd appearance

How many spectators visit your arena largely depend on your fans. Your fans' mood and the size of your fan club are the most important crowd factors. Your current position in your series, and the difference between your position and your opponent's position are also of importance (for series games).

To some extent your opponents' fan club size and fan mood matters, as some of them might like to come too. It is also worth knowing that people get more interested in attending games as the season goes by. You will generally get bigger crowds at the end of the season than at the start.

The weather naturally also matters. Fewer spectators will visit your arena in bad weather, but those who come will be more interested in buying more expensive tickets and sitting under a roof. It is therefore possible that your total income will be similar in any weather, provided there enough appropriate stands.

Improving the arena

To improve your arena you order a construction company to rebuild your arena. It'll take some time - a week or more depending on the scope of the conversion. All existing stands stay available during the construction time. You pay a set price of 10 000 € per conversion, together with a cost for each seat you want to add or remove:

Construction cost Removing cost
Terrace places 45 € 6 €
Regular seats 75 € 6 €
Seats under roof 90 € 6 €
Seats in VIP lounge 300 € 6 €

It's a good idea to have a mix of different types of stands to offer your fans. Most people want to buy tickets to the terraces, therefore these should be the largest in number among your seat types. Some people only attend matches if they can have comfortable seats (and some will also demand a roof over their seats), so you should have quite a lot of those too. There is also the "prawn sandwich" brigade who only want to sit in fancy VIP lounges, they're not that many but you may not want to forget about them. Seats under a roof and in VIP lounges aren't affected as much by bad weather as the other types.


Hiring the right staff members is important to your team and to the development of the club. Your staff may not be found in the dugout on match day, but they will work with the players during the week or fulfill other key tasks for the club. They complement the head coach and for you as manager it is crucial to make sure you have the right people on the team.

Staff effects and skill levels

Any contribution you get from hiring a staff member is applied as a static bonus on top of an existing team stat. This bonus will always be visible to you. But since team stats are dynamic to begin with, and are influenced by different factors, the final effect achieved with a hired staff member can be hard to predict exactly. What you can be sure of is that you are moving the needle in the right direction. Staff members with higher skill levels naturally contribute a higher bonus effect. These bonuses are linear - which means that each additional skill level always contributes as much again as the skill level before. If you have several staff members within the same category, their bonuses are combined and applied only once. In this way, a single level 4 Assistant Coach has the same effect as two level 2 Assistant Coaches. To make things easier, you will always see the actual bonus given by your current backroom staff or any staff you plan to hire written out on the Staff page. A table with all staff categories and bonuses can also be found at the end of this section.

Size of your staff

You can employ up to 5 staff members in total. You may employ up to three Assistant Coaches at a time. For all other staff categories your board will only allow one staff member at a time. Hiring and firing

Any staff member you hire must stay for at least one whole week before he can be let go. Also, whenever a staff member is fired, they are paid a week's wages as compensation. Beyond this there are no limitations as to how often you can make changes to your staff.

Staff categories

Assistant Coach

The training speed bonus given by Assistant Coaches is added to your team's existing training efficiency. Make sure you have a good regular coach before considering spending much money on assistant coaches. But when you do have a competent head coach, hiring a number of skilled Assistant Coaches could be a good strategy for any team focused on training.

This bonus is added as a multiplier on top of the existing training efficiency as decided by the coaching skill of your head coach, your chosen training intensity, and your chosen stamina share. As an example, if you had a solid coach, 100 % training intensity, and 10 % stamina share, the following training speeds would be achieved for a 22 year old formidable playmaker:

No assistant coach: 7 weeks until next level
Level 5 skill coach: 6 weeks until next level
Level 10 skill coach: 5 weeks until next level
Level 15 skill coach: 4 weeks until next level

You can hire up to three Assistant Coaches at a time. If you have several Assistant Coaches, their combined skill levels will create one single bonus. This means a level 4 Assistant Coach contributes exactly the same as two level 2 Assistant Coaches would.

Alongside the effects on training, Assistant Coaches also have two side effects. Form is increased, but so is injury risk.

Injury risk is calculated as the average number of injuries per game, not per player but per team. The base value is 0.4 injuries per match for your team. With a level 5 Medic this can be reduced to 0.025. Assistant Coaches contribute to a higher injury risk by 0.025 injuries per match per skill level hired. This means a level 5 Assistant Coach increases your base injury risk to 0.525 injuries per match (0.15 with a level 5 Medic), and three level 5 Assistant Coaches gives you a base injury risk of 0.775 injuries per match (0.4 with a Level 5 Medic).

As already mentioned, on the positive side Assistant Coaches do increase the background form of your players. If you have a full 15 skill levels of Assistant Coaches, background form will increase by 0.5 levels. In other words, three level 5 Assistant Coaches contribute half as much to form as a level 5 Form Coach would.


Medics are responsible for the overall physical condition of your players. This means they work both proactively to prevent injuries as well as with the rehabilitation of any players that do get injured. Having a Medic on the team will reduce injury risk as well as decreasing the recovery time for injured players.

Every time your team plays a match, there is a certain injury risk for your players. Having a Medic in the backroom staff will reduce the base injury risk for your team. A level 5 Medic will reduce the base injury risk from 0.4 injuries per match to 0.025, but be aware that other factors - such as hiring Assistant Coaches - may increase the risk.

If a player experiences an injury, Medics also help speed up their recovery. In Hattrick, injuries show up with an estimated recovery time in weeks. During every daily update, the player recovers a little bit on his way to 90 % health (when he can play again, but is still bruised) and then, ultimately, to 100 % health, when he has no sign of the injury left.

Examples: With no Medic, a 19 year old player will take 3 weeks to recover. With a level 2 Medic he will take around 2 weeks to recover. With a level 5 Medic this reduces to approximately one and a half weeks. A 29 year old player with the same injury would take 6 weeks to recover with no Medic. A level 1 Medic reduces this to about 5 weeks. A level 5 Medic reduces it further to just under 3 weeks.


Hiring a spokesperson will improve the team's popularity with fans as well as sponsors, which in turn has an effect on sponsor income and ticket sales. Hiring a spokesperson is mainly a financial decision - make sure that the salary is covered by increased revenue for the club.

The Spokesperson gives a bonus to both fan and sponsor mood. The bonus is not immediate, but rather raises the target value towards which fan and sponsor mood move. After changing to a Spokesperson of a different level, it should take up to 8 weeks for the change to fully take effect.

The bonus per level is +0.1 for fan mood and +0.5 for sponsor mood. This means a level 5 Spokesperson will, over time, increase your fan mood by half a step and sponsor mood by two and a half steps.

A Spokesperson will always have a positive impact on your income. Higher fan mood will increase ticket sales and higher sponsor mood will increase sponsorship payments. The bigger effect tends to come through ticket sales, but this can vary a lot since many other factors impact fan mood and ticket sales. The bonus to sponsor income is more reliable.

Sports Psychologist

The mental game is almost as important as the physical one. Hiring a Sports Psychologist can really help you create a winning atmosphere. This staff member will help you maintain your team's confidence in their own game as well as help nurture the team spirit of the whole squad.

Team spirit is driven by the team attitude you set for previous games. Immediately after a game team spirit may get a boost or drop lower, depending on which team attitude was used. But at each daily update the team spirit then tends to normalise, which means if it is high then it will slowly drop and if it is low then it will slowly recover. A Sports Psychologist can help you improve this process by raising the base value toward which your team spirit moves naturally. A higher base value means that high team spirit values will fall slower and low ones will rise faster. The bonus received is one tenth of a level per skill level employed. This means a level 5 Sports Psychologist will increase your team spirit base value by half a level of team spirit.

Your team's confidence is also helped by the Sports Psychologist. Confidence is primarily driven by your team results and how many goals you've scored. But the Sports Psychologist adds a bonus to confidence as well. This bonus equals one full level of confidence for a Level 5 Sports Psychologist, or one fifth of a level of confidence per skill level employed.

Form Coach

Player performance is not only down to technical skills and physical stamina. Players tend to go in and out of form, and many factors can influence this, not least mental ones.

The Form Coach specialises in getting the most out of the player material you have. He keeps the squad match fit and motivated. Hiring a form coach is not a quick fix, neither is the effect permanent - but for some teams and some situations it can be a good solution.

The form of a player is a measure of how close he is to be performing at his maximum potential. The value you see on the player is the current form, and this is what is used in the match simulation. However, the current form always has a trend and the value the form is moving toward is called the background form. By using a Form Coach you will receive a bonus to your background form updates. Whenever background form is recalculated (this happens on average every second week) each skill level of the Form Coach will bump the background form higher by 0.2 levels. This means a level 5 Form Coach will add a whole level of background form to your player when the update is applied. Please note that background form can still drop, but that your average over time will be higher.

Financial Director

The Financial Director increases the Club’s economic flexibility and is especially useful for Clubs that have a strong financial position. Normally, the Board sets a limit to how much money is at the managers direct disposal for things such as salaries, player transfer fees, or arena projects. The rest of the cash will be held by the Board and will only be released by the Board when the Board deems it necessary.

Hiring a Financial Director increases the amount of funds a Club can keep in cash, before the Board intervenes. It also increases the speed with which the Board will release money to the manager when cash runs below the cash reserve limit established by the Board.

The Financial Director will grant the manager the possibility to invest saved funds into the squad more aggressively than the Board would otherwise have agreed to. Having a Financial Director on the team may be necessary for teams that save up for a few seasons to make an expensive run for the Cup or league title.

Example: Team Tycoon has accumulated 30 million Euro in funds. Without a Financial Director, the Board will only the allow the manager access to 10 million Euro at a time. If the manger spends 2 millions, and the new cash balance is 8 million Euro, the Board will again make investment funds available to the manager, but only at the slow rate of 10000 EUR a week.
Now Team Tycoon hires a Level 3 Financial Director. The Board now being more confident that cash is handled responsibly, will increase the max cash limit to 16 million Euro and the weekly release rate to 100 000 Euro. The Club can now spend an extra 100 000 euro per week without lowering cash reserves, or increase cash reserves up to 16 million euro without any further Board intervention.

Lineup: Experience and confusion

The "experience" concept simulates that a 28 year-old, with certain abilities, has managed to learn things not directly concerning these abilities, which thus affects his actions on the field.

Here, too, we separate two concepts.

  • Experience: An individual characteristic for each player.
  • The team's routine, with any given formation. A characteristic concerning the team as a whole.

These characteristics are applied in three different contexts during a match:

  • "Confusion": If you use a formation differing from 4-4-2, and, above all, if you choose anything other than the 6 standard alternatives (4-3-3, 5-3-2, 3-5-2, 4-5-1, 3-4-3, 5-4-1) there's an increasing risk for confusion in the team. The following decides if your team will be subject to confusion:
    • If the team is used to (see below) playing with a formation, the risk decreases. This is the only function of the team's routine with a certain formation.
    • If the players' accumulated experience (with a bonus for the team captain, see below) is high, the risk decreases.
    • The more the formation strays from 4-4-2, the higher the risk. 4-4-2 is completely free of risk.
    • A test of confusion is carried out just before the match begins. Tests can also occur during match time. If the players are confused at half-time the coach can improve the situation somewhat by giving an extra briefing.
  • Nothing's more nerve-wracking than having to face a penalty contest at the end of a cup or qualifier match. At every penalty (not during regular match time, though) a test of the player's experience is made. At this point, don't send forth your shaky 17-year old debutante as the first penalty taker! The skills taken into consideration include scoring ability, set pieces ability, as well as the technical specialty for shooters, and the keeper skill for keepers.
  • "Nervous situations": Very important or dramatic matches might mean that inexperienced players lose their grip on the game. This gets worse the more they lack experience. Only the team with the lowest amount of experience will be subject to this during the match.

So far, this has all been about how experience and a team's routine with a certain formation is applied. How does one acquire routine and experience, then?

Formation experience

Your team can play any formation you wish, but your players might get confused and play below their ordinary capacity if you use a formation they aren't experienced with. To get the formation experience up and avoid confusion your team simply needs some practice. You gain some experience for a formation every time you use it (friendlies and competitive games are equally important). The amount of experience you get for each formation you use is minute based (max 90 min per match), just like training. However, gaining experience becomes harder at high levels. If you don't use a certain formation, the experience will decrease over time. There is also a risk of losing formation experience any time you sell a player.


If your players aren't experienced enough with a formation they risk getting confused, which negatively affects their performance. An excellent (or higher) formation experience level is enough to keep you safe. For lower levels, the risk of getting confused rises the lower your formation experience level is. If your players' accumulated individual experience (see below) is high, the risk decreases though.

In case of confusion your formation experience also decides how confused your players will be; the lower your formation experience level is, the more confused your players will be. If your players get confused, a text showing the current level of your team organisation will be displayed in the match report. A confusion event saying that your team organisation fell to "wretched" means that it was very bad, while a drop to "solid" only had a very limited effect. If your players are confused at half-time (or before extra-time) your coach can improve the situation somewhat by giving an extra briefing.

Players' individual experience

Experience positively affects a player's actions on the field. The players get their experience through playing matches. Cup matches give about double the amount of experience compared to league games. An International friendly match gives about a fifth of the experience that a league match gives and a friendly against a team from your own country gives about half as much as an international friendly. National team matches give the most experience, followed by Hattrick Masters matches.

The amount of experience a certain player gets is minute based, just as training. A player can not gain more than 90 minutes of experience from each match.

Team captain and total experience

You can appoint a team captain for each match. Experience and leadership are important abilities for the team captain, as the captain's level in those abilities give a bonus when calculating your team's total experience – which can prevent your team both from suffering confusion and from getting nervous in important and dramatic matches. In such situations, only the team with the lowest amount of experience can get nervous, reflecting their inexperience. The difference between the two teams' experience levels decides how nervous the players will get. Teams will never suffer from this in league matches or friendlies.

The team captain has to be in your starting lineup. If you haven't appointed a team captain, the players will choose a captain they think will do a good job.

Penalty takers

Cup and qualifier matches can end in a penalty shoot-out if the scores are still level after extra time. You choose your penalty takers through a sub-page to the order form. When choosing the order please remember that nothing is more nerve-wracking than a penalty contest, and at every penalty (not during regular match time, though) a test of the shooter's experience is made. Apart from experience, the shooter's scoring and set pieces skills (as well as technical speciality) are taken into consideration. For keepers the keeper skill is all that matters.

Match: Set pieces and special events

In this match chapter we will move a little bit deeper and focus on two important match details: how you score from set pieces and what you can gain from "special events".

Set Pieces

Some of your basic attacks will result in a set pieces opportunity. Just as in real football, you can earn many points by being good at set pieces. There are two types of set pieces, direct and indirect (in friendlies only right now).

Direct set pieces

Direct set pieces are penalties and direct free kicks. To score, your appointed set pieces taker uses his set pieces skill to outwit the opposing goalkeeper. In friendlies this season your goalkeeper also uses set pieces when defending against direct set pieces, but he can not be your set pieces taker.

Indirect set pieces

About 1/3 of your set pieces chances will be indirect. Indirect set pieces are indirect free kicks, and the outcome depends on team effort. To attack you use (in order of importance) your outfield players’ average scoring skill, their average set pieces skill, and your set pieces taker’s set pieces skill. To defend you use (in order of importance) your outfielders’ average defending, their average set pieces, your goalkeeper’s goalkeeping, and his set pieces.

Special events

Apart from the basic attacks, you can also have "special events" happen. Special events are match events depending on players' attributes, and particularly their specialities, which makes it a strategy itself to compose a squad that has a good balance of player specialities.

When a special event happens your chance to experience it is the same as your ball possession (which means 55% possession means a 55% chance of receiving the special event). Remember, you must also have players with the right attribute for a particular event to experience it.

There are two types of special events: Goal events (more common) can gain you additional attacks and weather events (less common) affect an individual player's performance for the rest of the game. For each special event happening in a match, the chance for another special event decreases.

Weather special events

Certain specialties may be better suited to certain weather condition. If a "weather event" happens, a certain player is affected for the rest of the game, and his player rating will reflect his performance accordingly.

Technical players lose Scoring and Playmaking skill in rain and gain the same skills in sun.
Powerful players gain Scoring, Defending and Playmaking skill in rain and lose Scoring in sun. They also get more tired in sun.
Quick players lose Scoring and Defending in rain, and also lose Defending in sun.

If a weather event happens you will get information about it in the match report, and the player's star rating will also reflect his performance accordingly.

Goal events

Specialities (and other player attributes) can gain you additional attacks. In addition to what is listed below, the player who puts the chance away (often, but not always, the same player who creates the chance) also needs some scoring skill in order to score from these attacks.

Unpredictable players can use their passing skill to create unexpected long passes, and their scoring skill to intercept the ball. Their unpredictability itself may also create unlikely scoring opportunities. If an unpredictable defender or inner midfielder has sufficiently low defence skill, they can also make a reckless error that will give the opponent a chance to score.
Quick wingers and forwards can create a chance by using a burst of speed. This can be countered by the opposing team using a defensive player (defender or inner midfielder) who is also quick, or has sufficient defending skill to keep up.
Technical wingers and forwards can create chances if an opposing defender or inner midfielder is a head specialist.
Wingers with sufficient winger skill can create chances that will have to be finished off by another winger or a forward. If that other player is a head specialist or has sufficient scoring skill, he will be more likely to score.
Corner: To score from a corner kick, the player responsible for taking your set pieces will need to have sufficient set pieces skill and the player receiving the ball from the corner will have to have sufficient scoring skill. The higher the number of outfield head specialists in your team (your set pieces taker does not count), and the lower the number of outfield head specialists among your opponent's, the better your chances to score. Having no head specialists at all will make you very weak at defending against corners and very weak at scoring from your own corners.
Experience: experienced wingers and forwards can score using their experience. Inexperienced defenders and inner midfielders can give their opponents an extra chance.
Tiredness: Tired defensive players (defenders and inner midfielders) can make mistakes. Unless the opposing attacker is also too tired, this may create a chance for the opponent.

Other additional match events

There are also some additional events you can get in a match. The chance to get these events is not dependent on midfield strength, so the chance doesn't increase if you're dominating the midfield.

Counter-attacks: Even if you don't use the counter-attack tactic there is a slim chance that your team gets to counter. These "tactic-independent" counter-attacks do not require your team to have an inferior midfield (which otherwise is necessary to counter). See the chapter about tactics for more info about counter-attacks.

Long shots: Even if you don't use the long shot tactic there is a slim chance that your team gets a long shot opportunity. Read the tactics chapter for more info about long shots.

Match: Tactics


When a game starts the teams' tactics for the match will be displayed in the report, unless they are using "normal" tactics.

You use the regular match order form to choose the tactic. Please note that it is not possible to set default tactics, like you can set a default team. If you don't specify a tactic for each game, then the "normal" tactics will be used.


Pressing means that all of your players try to put pressure on their opponents. They also put slightly more effort into breaking up your opponent's attacks than trying to create their own. The result is that the total number of potential chances in the game gets reduced for both teams.

The disadvantage of this tactic is that it will drain the stamina of your players faster than normal.

Two things can greatly increase your chances at successfully reducing the number of attacks in the game: the total defending skill and the total stamina of all your outfield players. If a player has the "Powerful" specialty, his defence skill counts as double for this calculation. Stamina is taken into account for each player when calculating the "pressing skill", so the more tired your players get, the less able they are to put pressure on their opponents. As always, a player with excellent stamina, or better, has sufficient stamina not to lose any of his skills during the game, at least not out of tiredness. When calculating this "Pressing skill", the experience bonus is added for each outfield player, as normal.

Whenever a potential chance is foiled by a team using the Pressing tactic, it is reported in the match report. You will never find out which team could have benefited from the chance.

It is perfectly possible for both teams to play Pressing. The effect on reducing the number of potential chances is cumulative and on average, the number of lost opportunities is doubled.


Counter-attacks mean you deliberately let your opponent control the ball, and as soon as they fail with an attack you try to make a fast counter-attack. Playing counter-attacks could be a good option if you have a very good defence and attack (but a bad midfield), and especially in combination with your opponent having an ineffective attack.

Advantage: You can gain additional attacks (you get the chance to counter-attack when your defence has managed to stop an opponent's attack).

Disadvantage: You lose 7% of your midfield capacity.

Relevant Skills: The total sum of your defenders' passing and defending skills determine your CA tactical skill. Passing is twice as important as defending. Only the team that is not dominating the midfield at the time of a failed attack is able to make use of the advantage of this tactic (and note that you have to be losing midfield before the 7% tactical penalty is applied). If you're dominating the midfield, then you will just suffer the disadvantage. All counter-attacks are reported in match report.

Attack in the Middle

Attack in the middle (AIM) means your team focuses on attacking down the centre of the pitch, at the expense of attacks on the wings. In other words, you trade wing attacks for attacks in the middle.

Advantage: Around 15-30% of your wing attacks will be converted to attacks in the middle.

Disadvantage: Your wing defence (on both sides) gets somewhat worse.

Relevant Skills: The total passing skill of all your outfield players determines your AIM tactical skill. Whenever an attack is switched from the wings to the middle, it is shown in the match report.

Attack on Wings

Attack on wings (AOW) works in the same way as "Attack in the middle", only in reverse; meaning you trade middle attacks for attacks on the wings. As there normally are less attacks in the middle than on the wings, you convert percentage-wise slightly more of them.

Advantage: Around 20-40% of your middle attacks will be converted to wing attacks.

Disadvantage: Your central defence gets somewhat worse.

Relevant Skills: The total passing skill of all your outfield players determines your AOW tactical skill. Whenever an attack is switched from the middle to the wings, it is shown in the match report.

Play creatively

Play creatively (PC) means players try to make more use of their specialities, and other attributes.

Advantage: You increase the chance for special events (both positive and negative, including weather events) occurring during the match - for both teams.

Disadvantage: Your team defence gets somewhat worse. Relevant Skills: PC does not require any specific skills, nor receive a tactical skill level. To make good use of it, a SE-optimised team (i.e. one with many players with specialities) is recommended.

Long shots

When playing long shots (LS) your players are instructed to rather go for a long shot than playing the whole attacking sequence through. In other words, you trade attacks through the middle and on the wing for long shots. A long shot then pits the shooter against the goalkeeper. This can be useful if you have a hard time scoring using your middle/wing attacks, and have decent shooters.

Advantage: The long shots tactic converts up to around 30% of side and middle attacks.

Disadvantage: Your wing and middle attack, as well as your midfield, get a little bit worse.

Relevant skills: Your outfielders' scoring and set pieces skills determine the LS tactical skill. Scoring is three times more important than set pieces.

When an attack has been converted to a long shot, any defending team using the pressing tactic has a chance to steer off the shooting opportunity. If the shot is not steered off, an outfielder (inners and wingers are twice as likely) takes the shot. The quality of the shot depends on the appointed shooter's scoring and set pieces skills, and then the goalkeeper can attempt to save the shot using his goalkeeping and set pieces skills. For both shooter and keeper: A bit of both skills is needed, and it's better to have some of both skills than much of one.

All long shots are reported in the match report, including any missed or saved opportunities.

Orders and substitutions

Hattrick is designed so that you are able to assign orders on all pages, in a suitable context. If you're checking out your stadium there's an orders list for improving your stadium on the spot. If you're checking a player you can put him up for transfer with a simple click. One orders list is more important than the others, though: the Match Orders List. This is where you decide how the team is to play in a certain match, which players should be included, who's to be captain and some other things as well. You'll find the Match Orders List on the "Upcoming Matches" page, and you can place separate orders for all scheduled games. This is a way to design a strategy for several weeks ahead, if you won't be able to coach the team at that time. A risk, though, is that you might have some injuries, suspensions or changes in form that will make you want to adjust your orders for upcoming games.

Any match order needs to be submitted at least 15 minutes before the game starts.

You don't have to place orders, though. The team will use your standard formation in upcoming games, and will train in the same way as the last round if you don't adjust anything. You can define a standard formation using the normal "Orders" page. Injured players will be automatically replaced by substitutes, as previously discussed.

The Match Orders List is built around a traditional 4-4-2-formation, where you can choose which player goes where from a scrolling list. If a player is projected to be injured and, therefore, expected to be unavailable for a game, he'll be marked in red in the menu. If you choose a player for a position, and he's already selected for another one, the player will disappear from his former position. In other words, you can't assign a player two positions.

If you wish to play a formation other than 4-4-2, this is done by moving a player. For example, to move a player from left wing back to inner midfield, you would choose the player in the left wing back box, and give him an "extra inner midfielder" position. This means you've changed your lineup to 3-5-2, playing without a left wing back. This is how you switch formations. Converting a forward into a defender would turn the formation into 5-4-1, as another example. Read more about this in Chapter 12: Individual orders and repositioning.

You also choose substitutes, the team captain and the set pieces taker from the Match Orders List. Through a sub-page to the "Match Orders" page, you choose the order of your penalty takers, should a game end in a penalty shoot-out.

We recommend that you choose a "standard setup" for your team. This is done by clicking the "Make this the standard setup" box before sending your match orders off. This means that Hattrick will assume this setup for future games, but you can always adjust your setup according to the particular circumstances affecting matches ahead.


There are 3 possible repositionings:

  • Extra forward
  • Extra inner midfielder
  • Extra central defender

Thus, you can't reposition a player as a wing back or a winger. Having two right wingers, for example, would defy logic. On the other hand you can always give your "Inner midfielder 2" an individual order to go "Towards Wing", applying some extra force there.

When you reposition a player he will act as any one of the players normally would in that position, apart from him not being able to completely optimise his game (he'll contribute slightly less as an "extra inner midfielder" than if he had been a real inner midfielder). This is because there will be too many players in the same place, getting under each other's feet.

Tactical blocking devices

In real life no team would line out with a 1-0-9 formation. This is simply because it wouldn't pay off. Accordingly, it won't pay off in Hattrick either. There are two blocking devices designed to deter you from experimenting too wildly:

  • "Confusion": If you use a formation other than 4-4-2 you may find that your players are so confused by this that they play below their normal capacity. The stranger the formation, the more widespread the confusion. (This risk can be counteracted by "Routine" and "Experience" - see below). When your club experiences a confusion-based match event, a text showing the level of confusion will be displayed in the match report. The "disastrous to excellent" scale will be used to describe the level of team organisation after the event. A confusion event saying that team organisation fell to "wretched" means that it was very bad, while a drop to "solid" only had a very limited effect. Besides 4-4-2, which is guaranteed to be free of confusion, there are 6 different standard alternatives where the risks of confusion are decisively smaller than the more extreme formations:
    • 4-3-3 (e.g. one of your inner midfielders or wingers has been repositioned as a forward)
    • 5-3-2 (e.g. one of your inner midfielders or wingers has been repositioned as a central defender)
    • 3-5-2 (e.g. one of your defenders has been repositioned as an inner midfielder)
    • 4-5-1 (e.g. one of your forwards has been repositioned as an inner midfielder)
    • 3-4-3 (e.g. one of your defenders has been repositioned as a forward)
    • 5-4-1 (e.g. one of your forwards has been repositioned as a defender)
The last two of these (3-4-3 and 5-4-1) are somewhat harder to pull off than the others, but all 6 of them are counted as standard alternatives.
If confusion should occur, this will be reported during the match.
  • Absence of training effect - If you use an extreme formation (for example 7 defenders), the confusion caused might be so total that the training for the whole week and any possible experience gains from the match are lost. Note that this risk only occurs when you have at least 2 players more than the default in one part of the team, like 4 central defenders or 4 inner midfielders. The greater the overcrowding, the bigger the risk. (This is to avoid teams getting boosted training effects for strikers, for example, by playing 0-0-10).

Note that you don't have to experiment with different formations. 4-4-2 with "Normal" on all players should be considered the standard formation. When you reposition somebody there's a slight waste of his abilities in the new position that can't be exploited. A lot of gamers will, of course, believe that an unusual formation is worth the price, maybe because of the squad's capabilities, or because they believe they can outsmart an opponent.


As mentioned in the lineup chapter; if one of your players gets injured, the substitute for that position will enter the pitch automatically. But you can also set up preconditioned substitutions.

Preconditioned substitutions

You can in advance set up substitutions for a match, either for making that master-mind tactical move or just to swap a tired player for a fresh one. You can for example change a forward for an extra defender to secure your lead in a game, or swap a defender for a forward if you're down. You can also choose to change the individual player order for a player.

Adding a preconditioned substitution

To add a substitution you go to the "Subs/Orders" tab in the match order form. You pick the player you want to leave the pitch and the substitute who will enter. You then decide the conditions of the substitution. You can set up the substitution to happen after a certain minute, and/or depending on the standings in the game by displaying the "advanced options". Moreover, in the advanced options you can also add a condition if one of your (or your opponent's) players gets a red card and change the player's position.

Adding a behaviour change

You add behaviour changes in the "Subs/Orders" tab too. Similar to adding a substitution you pick the player in mind and then add the conditions for when you want him to change behaviour.

You can add five player orders

You may add up to five different player orders (substitutions and behaviour changes). But remember, the referee will not let you make more than three substitutions in a match.

Orders are carried out when the conditions are met

All your player orders will be carried out in the match as soon as all the conditions set before the match is met. If the condition isn't met, the order will not be carried out. If you order a substitution in the 65th minute at any standing, the substitution will be carried out in the 65th minute. If you order a substitution in the 70th minute if you're in the lead, the substitution will be carried out at any time after the 70th minute when/if the condition is met. So if you get into the lead in the 80th minute, your substitution will be carried out first then.

If you set up two orders for the 70th minute, one if you're in the lead and the other if you're in the lead by more than one, and is in the lead with 3-0 when that time comes – both orders will be issued. After the match you can see (but not your opponent) a list over all your player orders via a link on the star rating page, together with information when they were issued or why they weren't issued.

You can't react on injuries

It's not possible to set up any conditions for injuries. If one of your players gets injured during a match, the automatic system deals with it. This also means that an injury can mess up your substitution plans, just like in real life football.


Managing a football team is not only about training and tactics, it's about psychology as well. Your team has to want to win and they have to believe in themselves. Your team psychology affects your match results, and in return your match results also affect your team psychology.

Team spirit

The atmosphere at your club has a great influence over the performance of your team. Team spirit affects your midfield ratings, and the higher team spirit you have, the better your midfield will perform. This, in turn determines the amount of ball possession you will get. Team spirit itself can be affected by a lot of things, but in particular your coach's leadership, the team attitude you set for each match, transfers and psychologists.


Your players have to believe in themselves to perform well, and a team with low confidence has trouble putting their opportunities away. High confidence is normally a good thing, but if it gets too high players may underestimate weaker teams (see below for more info). Team confidence is reflected in the attack sector ratings. Confidence is largely dependent on the results of previous games, but psychologists are also known to boost it.

Team attitude

Before each competitive match you tell your squad how important the match is. Your team attitude setting affects how much ball possession you will get. You have three alternatives:

Match of the Season: Your players will do anything to win this one. However, directly after the match the team spirit will fall, which means your players will not perform at their best for the following matches.

Normal: The players perform as usual.

Play it cool: Your players are instructed to take it easy, as there are other more important games to focus on later. Directly after the match, team spirit will increase and your players will perform better in the next matches.

Player personality

All players have a personality. Dishonest and aggressive players tend to get booked and sent off more often. Leadership is important for your appointed team captain and for your coach. Psychological match events Events during a game may affect your team's performance. These events won't affect team spirit or confidence - only the match played. It's not unusual for a team with an enormous lead to lose their momentum and to start backing off. However, a team performing unusually badly in the first half might get a telling off from the coach during the break, and pull themselves back together.


Whenever you're facing a team in a worse position than you and your confidence is strong or better; you may underestimate your opponent and play below your normal capacity. The risk of underestimating your opponent is dependent on the points and position difference between the teams, your confidence level and your team attitude for the match, with the risk being greater when the difference between the teams is bigger and/or confidence is very high. The only way to completely avoid underestimation is to play 'match of the season'.

If you do underestimate your opponent, the points difference, confidence level, team attitude and whether you are home or away decides the exact amount of underestimation. Depending on the score you may recover somewhat at half time. You'll see a full recovery if you're behind, 2/3 in the case of a draw and 1/3 if you have a narrow one goal lead.

Note that underestimation can only happen in league matches, but not in the first three rounds.


This is where you acquire new players and try to sell those players you don't want to keep.

Selling players

In order to sell a player you have to place him on the transfer list. This is done from the page concerning the particular player, always linked to his name. In the box to your right you choose under what category the player will be "advertised", and what you're asking for him. You have to choose a category for the player to list him for transfer. You may choose any category from goalkeeper to forward, normally choosing the one best describing his qualities, of course.

You have to declare a reserve price for the player. This is the lowest amount for which you're prepared to let him go. He'll be on the transfer list 3 days before going to the club that has offered the most for him, provided somebody has bid over your reserve price.

A sold player disappears off to his new club immediately after the bidding is over. If a buyer isn't found he stays at your club. If you have placed a player on the transfer list you MAY NOT change your mind! He's there for 3 days, and that's that! Also, keep in mind that all information on the player's abilities, personality etc. will be made common knowledge when you place him on the transfer list.

You may select a player for the team even if he is on the transfer list.

After every completed deal, the player's agent, mother club, and last club will all take their cut of the sale price. The exact amount you will receive depends on how long the player has been with your club. The most you can expect is 95% (See Transfer Fees for more details). It will cost you 1 000 € to place a player on the transfer list, even if he isn't sold. Note: If you are selling one of your own youth players you are not considered the previous owner - but the next time he is sold you will receive previous club money (if he has played a match for your team) as well as 2% of the sale price for being the mother club. After that you will only receive money for being the mother club whenever the player is sold. The sale of a player after six days from his being pulled from the youth squad may result in a loss of team spirit.

Buying players

In order to buy a player from another club you have to visit Hattrick's player market, under the "Transfers" menu. This is where you'll find out who's for sale. You can only buy players on the transfer list. You can't buy, or exchange, for that matter, players directly from another club. If you don't see a player that you like in your country's local market - you can search either an individual country or by one of eight regions, these are all available from the drop-down box on the transfer search page.

When you've found a player you want, click on his name and you'll enter his player page. This is where you may place your offer. You must raise the bid by 1 000 € or 2%, whichever is greater.

Note that the sum of your bids plus the wages of the players you are bidding on cannot put you more than 200 000 € into debt.

Bids must be raised by 1 000 €! You may bid on a player right up until the deadline. If someone places an offer less than 3 minutes before the deadline, the deadline will be extended for another 3 minutes. This continues until all bidders but one retire. Also, when you win a bid, if the new player does not get along with his teammates, you may see team spirit decrease. Once you have bought a player, you will immediately have to pay his first salary. This means an additional expense for each player you buy each week.

Keep in mind that the server might be down just as the deadline approaches. You'll be taking a chance by waiting until the last minute before making your move. If the server is down, you're to blame for not acting earlier. Please also note that transfer deadlines can be extended (in the fairest possible way) in case of planned server shutdowns.

A great help when buying players is the information concerning his abilities, personality etc. You may also want to consider a player's TSI, or Total Skill Index. However, the current market value of a player may differ greatly from what his TSI might lead you to expect as, above all, it's his top ability (or abilities) that is most relevant - a player being "world class" at something and "weak" in all other abilities will fetch a higher market price than one who is solid at everything. Remember that even if current form doesn't have a lot of impact on the market value, it will matter for his next couple of games. An expensive player won't necessarily be the saviour you need to get your team out of a tight spot. If you wish, you can use the 'Transfer Compare' button in order to see what a similar player has recently been sold for on the market.


Autobidding works in the same way as a normal bid would do. If you place a maximum bid the system will automatically bid for you when needed, always raising the bid by the lowest possible amount (2% or a minimum of 1 000 €).

You can change (either increase or decrease) your maximum bid at any time, but you can't remove your current bid. Your maximum bid is only visible to you personally, other managers can only see your current bid.

You can have one active maximum bid at a time. If your maximum bid has been reached, it does not count as an autobid anymore and you can set another maximum bid as needed.

For some special cases (such as when two teams make the same autobid or when two autobidders are battling against each other) we have built in some smart logic.

The agent, the mother club and transfer fees

Placing a player on the transfer list costs 1 000 €. After the completed deal the player's agent, mother club, and previous club will all take their cut of the sale price. On the player page you can always see how much you will keep if you sell a player. Here are the basics:

How much the agent takes depends on how long the player has been in your team.

The mother club always takes 2% of the selling price. When you're the mother club you always receive 2% each time that player is sold.

The previous club fund always takes 3% of the selling price. When you're the previous club the money you receive depends on how many matches the player played for your team.

See Transfer Fees for more info. When you sell a youth player you are not considered the previous club. But the next time he's sold you are considered previous club, provided he has played at least one match for your senior team.

Transfers may affect team spirit

Whenever you sell or buy a player you risk a drop in team spirit. The risk increases when you sell a nice player and when you buy a nasty player. There is no risk of a team spirit drop if you sell a youth player within 6 days of him joining the senior squad.

Server shutdowns

Transfer deadlines can be extended (in the fairest possible way) in case of server shutdowns. Also keep in mind that the server might be down just as the deadline approaches. You'll be taking a chance by waiting until the last minute before making your move. In order to avoid disappointment caused by an unexpected server downtime, it is advised to put your players on the transfer list at a price you think is reasonable, as otherwise you risk selling your player for a lower price than you had hoped for.

Fair Play in the Transfer Market

Good players and money are key aspects in Hattrick, which makes it very important that no teams benefit from abnormal activities on the transfer market. This means that all bids should be in relevance to what could be considered reasonable for the player in question. Remember, it's not only prohibited to have several teams but also to "help" friends or family by buying players at inflated prices. The GameMasters are fully authorized to cancel or adjust abnormal prices, hand out fines to teams or even ban the users involved.

Youth players

You can acquire new players for your regular squad by recruiting youth players. This can be done in two different ways:

  • Recruiting a player from the outside directly into your senior squad by using your scouting network.
  • Starting a youth academy, recruiting talents and developing them. You can play matches against other youth teams in private or public leagues, and eventually promote your talents to the regular team.

Promoting a random player from the outside to your senior squad is a simple and effective way to acquire new players. Running a youth academy is more challenging, but may also be a lot more fun.

You can only use one system at a time. If you are running a Youth Academy, you cannot promote a youth player from the scouting network. However, your academy costs also counts as scouting network investments, making it swifter to get your scouting network up to speed if you decide to close your academy and use the scouting network instead.

Scouting network

You can acquire a new player each week by moving a junior player up into the senior squad. The better the youth squad activities are, the better the chances of the junior player succeeding. You don't have any options on what kind of junior player you'll get, apart from choosing between a goalkeeper or an outfield player. Don't count on receiving top notch players each week. Most junior players you try out won't qualify for the team. If you have one or two of them moving directly up into the team you should be satisfied - think about how things work in reality!

Most clubs put a lot of money into their youth squad, but there are also those who spend less money or none at all, buying reinforcements from the transfer lists instead. However, if you do decide to build up your junior player structure, be prepared that it might take some time before your investment pays off with reasonably able juniors. You may find there's little point in moving juniors up if your youth squad status is "poor", for instance.

Every week you're allowed to make a large (20 000 €), medium (10 000 €), or small (5 000 €) investment in your junior squad. Many small investments are more efficient than a few large ones. In other words, it's wise to make long-term plans - if you're willing to invest a lot of future funds into increasing junior player activities, large investments can be a way to get results quickly. If you want to build up a decent structure gradually, without spending too much money, make a small investment each week. The upkeep of the youth squad won't automatically cost you anything, but if you don't make sure of regular funding, the structure will deteriorate quite rapidly. Once the level of the youth squad has dropped, it will take a long time to raise it again.

You're only able to promote one junior player per week. If you don't change the amount, the amount invested the previous week will be drawn.

It'll cost the club 2 000 € to move a junior up.

Information on your youth squad activities can be found in the "Your club" menu, under "The Club" caption. This is also where you enter the amount of money you want invested into the youth squad, and where you move them up from, each week.

Youth Academy

Having a youth academy means you will actively manage your youth team. You hire scouts, design the training and decide the line-up and tactics. Your youth team will compete in a youth league of your choice; you can for example play in a league together with your friends or colleagues. Every now and then your youth team can also play friendlies against other youth teams in the world.

Starting up a youth academy

You activate your youth academy from the "Your club" menu, under "The club" caption. You will get one trainer and one scout assigned to the team. You will also get some youth players immediately to allow your youth team to play matches right away. However, those players are randomly picked boys from a local school and far from talented.

The youth league

Your youth team joins a youth league of your choice, or you can choose to create your own. A youth league can have 4, 6, 8, 12 or 16 teams, and the league can be private (the creator of the league invites people to the league) or public (free for everyone to join). To start private leagues and leagues for 12/16 teams, the league creator needs to be a Supporter. The league creator can also choose when the league matches should be played. Once a league is filled with teams it starts automatically.

The scouts

When you activate your youth academy you will immediately get a youth scout assigned to the team. You choose in which region he should look for talents, and you may also tell him to look for a specific kind of player. If you tell him to look for a specific kind of player (for example wingers) he will offer you such a player most of the time, but the players will in general be worse. On the other hand there is also a bigger chance that he finds that fantastic talent in a specific search.

You may also hire additional scouts if you want, but you cannot have more than three scouts (and not less than one). Once a week, each scout will try to make you a player offer when you call him. He might come up with nothing, mostly because your request has been too specific or if the player demand in the region the scout is based in is so big that it hasn't got any youth talents at the moment. Bigger regions (user-wise) produce more youth players than smaller ones.

If you have more than one scout, you can also get a second offer (and a third if you've got three scouts) if you say no to the first one. But remember, if you choose to turn the first offer down you will never be able to reverse that decision. Once you've said no to an offer, it's definite.

The players

Your youth academy can host a maximum of 16 players at the same time. Players joining your youth academy will be 15-17 years old. Their skills are yet to be discovered, so you will not see their skills or personalities like you do for senior players. To explore your players you have got to try them out in different positions on the pitch, to see where they play the best. To your aid you have the star rating, the scout’s comments and the trainer’s report. You will also find additional hints in the match report.


Once every week your youth team plays a league match and every third week you will also have the opportunity to play a friendly game. You place your orders in advance and choose the tactic you want to play exactly as you do for your senior squad.


Youth players are in general fast learners, depending on their character. They can focus on two types of training at the same time, one primary and one secondary. The primary training has more effect than the secondary. You can choose to train the same thing (for example defending) as both primary and secondary training, but the training effect will be bigger if you choose two different training types.

Youth players receive training from both league games (full effect) and friendly games (smaller effect), so they can receive training twice the same week. The effect of training appears right after each match and one day afterwards your trainer will give you a report about what has happened in the team, with a lot of good hints about the players' progress.

Promotion to the senior squad

Taking the step from the junior team to the senior squad is hard for every young talent as they feel a need to impress the coach, the senior players and the fans with their qualities. Some talents have a hard time to cope with this pressure, especially if they are promoted at a young age, and may not reach their full potential because of this.

A youth player must at least be 17 years old and have been a member of your youth academy for at least a season (112 days) before you can promote him to your senior squad. Once a player reaches 19 years old, he will no longer be able to play in matches for your youth team. He does not have to leave the youth squad, but you will not see him on the pitch again until you promote him to the main team.

The costs

Running a youth academy with one scout costs 10 000 € per week and each additional scout costs 5 000 €. The academy does not have any specialists, they rely on their parents taking care of transport, bruises, injuries etc - which they do without any additional cost. At the same time youth academies have no income either, the only spectators are usually just parents and friends to the youth players.

Promoting an academy player to your senior squad costs 2 000 €. Apart from that the only additional cost you will get is if you tell your scout to search for players in another region, then you might have to pay for his plane ticket.

Closing the academy

If you want to deactivate your youth academy you can do that in between youth seasons or if your youth team is not a member of any youth league. You must keep your youth team for at least six weeks though.

The Series system

A Hattrick season is 16 weeks long: 14 league rounds (8 teams in each series who play each other twice), one week for qualifiers and one week with no league activity.

The division tree

The number of league levels can differ from one country to another, but the basic structure is always the same, like this:

1 Division I
4 Division II (II.1, II.2, II.3, II.4)
16 Division III (III.1, III.2, etc to III.16)
64 Division IV (IV.1, IV.2, etc to IV.64)
256 Division V (V.1, V.2, etc to V.256)
1024 Division VI (VI.1, VI.2, etc to VI.1024)
1024 Division VII (VII.1, VII.2, etc to VII.1024)
2048 Division VIII (VIII.1, VIII.2, etc. to VIII.2048)
2048 Division IX (IX.1, IX.2, etc. to IX.2048)
4096 Division X (X.1, X.2, etc. to X.4096)
4096 Division XI (XI.1, XI.2, etc. to XI.4096)

Please note that beginning with league level VI, the series size doubles at every second level.

Promotion, relegation and qualifiers

If you win your series you will either promote directly to a higher division, or play a qualifier to promote. In divisions II-VI the series winners with the most points promote directly, and the other winners have to play a qualifier. In lower divisions, all winners promote directly and in odd numbered divisions (VII, IX etc) the runners up also promote directly.

Series winners who have to qualify will face a team who finished 5th or 6th in the division above. Out of the series winners that must play a qualification game, the ones with the best records meet the worst 6th place teams, and the ones with the weakest record are pitched against the best 5th place teams. The team from the higher division plays at home. If the series winner wins, the two teams swap places in the league system. If the higher division team wins, they stay in their respective series.

If you end up in place 7 or 8 you will be relegated to the division below (except for the lowest division). The demoted team with the best record (the best team out of those finishing in place 7) will swap series with the promoted team that has the strongest record. The demoted team with the worst record swaps places with the weakest team that has gained promotion.

Bot demotion

At the end of each season all bot teams in division VI and lower will demote to the lowest possible division. The only exception to this is at the very top of division VI, where any bot team that wins the series will either promote or play a qualifier as normal. Bot teams in division V or above are treated in the same way as human owned teams in terms of promotion and relegation.

As these bot teams are demoted, additional teams will be promoted from the lower divisions to take their place. These teams are selected by ranking, with the highest ranked teams receiving the additional promotion slots. Should you feel your team is unable to cope in a higher division, it is possible to decline these slots (unless you are already in the lowest division in your league). Bot teams are always ranked 0, and as such will never receive this sort of promotion.

If there are more bots above the bottom division than human managers in the bottom division, the system automatically closes the bottom division, and hence makes preparations for it.

League position and ranking

The final standings are determined by, in order of importance, points, goal difference and goals scored. This in turn determines your ranking, which is used to decide who meets who in qualifiers and cup games. The ranking is based on, in order of importance: series level, place in the series, points, goal difference and goals scored. For both ranking and league position: if all of these things are equal a coin toss decides.

Prize money

If you finish first, second, third or in fourth place you will get some prize money. How much you get depends on your place and in which division you play:

Division 1 2 3 4
Level 1 750 000 € 495 000 € 375 000 € 188 000 €
Level 2 550 000 € 360 000 € 270.000 € 135 000 €
Level 3 375 000 € 240 000 € 180.000 € 90 000 €
Level 4 240 000 € 150 000 € 120 000 € 60 000 €
Level 5 150 000 € 90 000 € 75 000 € 38 000 €
Level 6 90 000 € 60 000 € 45 000 € 23 000 €
Other levels 60 000 € 45 000 € 30 000 € 15 000 €

There is also a 10 000 € bonus paid for having the top scorer in a series. The money is paid out after the last match of the season. If two players tie for this award, both current owners of the players will receive the award; however, if two of your own players tie, then you only receive one prize.

The budget and all matters concerning economy can be found at - yes, you guessed it! - the "Economy" caption on "Your Club" menu.

Promotion bonus

The teams also agreed that a special bonus should be given to those who manage to promote their team to a higher level. If your team is automatically promoted from level 6 or above, you get a higher bonus than teams that reach the higher division after playing a qualifying game. If your team loses a qualifying game and stays in the lower division, no bonus at all is paid out. In league levels 7 and below, both the winners and runners-up of odd-numbered divisions gain automatic promotion without having to play a qualifying match. Even-numbered divisions after this level will have only the winners promote without qualification. The runners-up in these leagues will stay in their leagues. In divisions where two teams are promoted, the winner gets the higher bonus, while the runner up gets the lower bonus. When only one team is promoted, the winner gets the higher bonus, while the runner up doesn't get any bonus payment. All promoting teams will also get a 10% supporter bonus (similarly, demoting teams will lose 10% of their supporters).

Division Auto-Promoted Auto-promoted
after qualifier
Level 1 525 000 € ----- -----
Level 2 380 000 € ----- 120 000 €
Level 3 260 000 € ----- 80 000 €
Level 4 170 000 € ----- 50 000 €
Level 5 100 000 € ----- 30 000 €
Level 6 60 000 € ----- 20 000 €
Other levels 40 000 € 10 000 € -----

Here is an example of how the bonus system may look:

Club A wins its Division IV and is promoted without qualification to Division III. They will get 240 000 € in prize money for winning its Division IV and 170 000 € in bonus money for being promoted without qualification. Total: 410 000 €.

The Cup

It's a lot of prestige to win the cup, and for your fans the cup is just as important as the league. The cup is also a good opportunity to make some extra money. The big money is in the crowd revenue, so just advancing a few rounds can be a real bargain if you play in a lower division. Not all teams are able to participate in the cup though. The number of teams accepted into the cup ranges from the 128 best ranked teams to the 32,768 best ranked teams, depending on how big the league is. For example, in a league with 680 teams, 512 will play in the cup. In a league with 10,920 teams, 8192 will play in the cup.

Cup fixtures

The cup is always played midweek, see the league details for the exact time in your league. The first round always takes place the week before the first league game of the season. Your opponent is announced one week in advance, for the next rounds your opponent is announced shortly after all matches for the current cup round have ended. The highest-ranked teams are always seeded to meet the lowest-ranked teams, and the higher-ranked team always plays away (a neutral ground is used in the semifinals and final). Teams are first ranked by the division they will play in this season, then ranked within a particular division as follows:

  1. Active demoted teams
  2. Active teams that neither demoted nor promoted
  3. Teams that promoted by their own strength
  4. Teams that promoted for "free" (replacing a demoted bot)
  5. Bots, in case of vacant spots

Teams within each group above are sorted according to the ranking at the end of the last season. The ranking stays the same for the duration of the cup.

All cup games not settled during normal time go to extra time. If they are not decided then, they go to a penalty shoot-out. For more information on how to select your penalty takers, see the chapter "Lineup: Experience and confusion".

Cup income

The home side gets 2/3 of the crowd revenue and the away side gets 1/3. In the semi-finals and final the teams split the revenue 50/50. In general, fans aren't very interested in the first couple of rounds of the cup, but their interest will increase as it goes on. It's also true that the fans of a lower division team will want to see a game against a higher division side, but that is not true the other way around. The best teams in the cup also get some prize money. The cup winner gets 800 000 €, the runner-up gets 400 000 € and the two losing semi-finalists each get 200 000 €. The losing quarter-finalists each get 100 000 € and the losing last-sixteen teams each get 50 000 €. There is no top scorer award for the cup.


To give all your players training in their right positions, practice games are always an option if you're not playing in the cup. Often it is used to let the reserves play and train, but it can also be a good way to test and train new formations and orders. Or why not challenge your best friend for a matter of honour.

Getting a friendly

The easiest way to get a friendly is to add your team to the friendly pool on the challenge page. Choose what kind of match and opponent you would like, and then the pool will automatically match your team against another team and book a friendly (as soon as you meet the criteria set by a team that matches your criteria).

As long as you are out of the cup, and have not already booked a friendly, you can challenge any opponents that are also without a game. Some teams may be unavailable for challenges due to their preferences or Manager Licence status. All of your challenges (including teams who have challenged you) are shown on the "Challenges" page. Once a friendly has been arranged, it will appear on the fixtures page, and you can select your team in the normal fashion.

Friendly match types

There are two types of friendly games: friendly game (normal) and friendly game (cup rules). With cup rules the match is decided after extra time (and perhaps penalties) if there's a draw after full time. International friendlies

You can choose to play abroad, or invite a team from another country to your arena. If you are playing abroad, the game will be played at the arena's local match time. For example, if you are playing in Portugal, the game will be played at the regular Portuguese Wednesday match time (i.e. 9.45pm Central European Time CET). Regardless of where you'll be travelling your team will be leaving at 6:00 p.m. (CET) on Tuesday and return by 8:00 a.m. on Thursday. International friendlies must be booked by Tuesday at the latest, and you can't book a new friendly at all until your team has returned home on Thursday. If your team didn't play an international friendly, you can start booking an international friendly for the next week at 6:00 a.m. on Thursday.

Each travel abroad will cost you 6 000 €, but on the other hand international friendlies tend to attract more spectators. Miscellaneous

The crowd turnout for a friendly is considerably less than for a competitive game. Friendlies with cup rules attract more than normal friendlies, and international friendlies attract even more. Confidence and team spirit are not affected, nor are fans or their mood. Moreover, the injury risk isn't reduced just because it's a friendly.

Playing on neutral ground

If you want to play a friendly without any of the team getting the home team advantage, you can choose to play on neutral ground. But if you play in an arena in your own region, you will still get the home team advantage (even if you are listed as the away team). The arena's owner will not earn any money from these friendlies.

No matter where you choose to play, any match played against a foreign team is considered to be an international friendly.


Tournaments is the alternative competition system for Hattrick teams. You can join official ladder tournaments and try to become the 'King of the Hill', or you can play in tournaments that are run by managers themselves.

Note that you can still play regular friendly matches every week even if you play in a tournament.

Own tournaments

You have to be a Gold or Platinum Supporter to create a tournament. The creator decides size, name, etc and then invites managers to the tournament. Gold and Platinum Supporters can join in for free, and others can also join in through Hattrick Gears. When the tournament is full, it will start automatically and a forum for the tournament will be created as well.

If the tournament is not full 72 hours before the first match should start, the start day will be postponed one week to the following Monday.

Tournament matches are played once a week, on Mondays, and you can participate in one tournament at a time. If you are knocked out of a tournament, you are free to join another one.

Ladder tournaments

In a ladder your goal is to reach the highest rung and become the 'King of the Hill'. And then stay there for as long as you can. To reach the top you challenge other teams listed above you in the ladder, and if you win you take their place in the ladder.

Challenge rules

Your current position in the ladder affects which teams you are able to challenge.

Pos 1-5: Can only be challenged by the team immediately below them in the ladder.
Pos 6-15: Can be challenged by teams 1-3 places below them.
Pos 16-99: Can be challenged by teams 1-10 places below them.
Pos 100-199: Can be challenged by teams 1-50 places below them.
Pos 200-1000: Can be challenged by teams 1-100 places below them.
Pos 1000-5000: Can be challenged by teams 1-500 places below them.
Pos 5000+: Can be challenged by teams 1-1000 places below them.

The challenger pays for the match and challenged teams automatically accept the challenge. The match is played 24 hours after the challenge has been made. If the challenger wins, the Credit will be refunded.

Position changes after match

If you challenge a team and win, you take the position of the team you challenged. The challenged team is moved down 1 position (this also goes for any other teams in between the two teams in the ladder).

Example: Team A is on position 54 and challenges B, currently 47. If A wins, A takes position 47 from B. B is moved down to position 48, and the team that held position 48 is moved down to 49, the team that held position 49 is moved down to 50, and so on.

If you challenge a team and lose, both teams stay in their respective places.

Challenge grace periods

After a match in which you were challenged, other teams can't challenge you for 12 hours (from the start of the match). This gives you a chance to challenge a team yourself and climb the ladder.

After a match in which you were the challenger, you can't challenge another team for 12 hours (from the start of the match). This is to give other teams a chance to challenge you. It is also to prevent scenarios where for example #2 always immediately challenges #1, making it impossible for #3 to challenge #2 and take that position.

Also, you can't challenge the team that you just played for 24 hours.

Tournament matches (Ladders and others)

Matches are played on neutral grounds and they don't give you any income from spectators (and no new members to your fan club). All tournament matches use the same match data as regular matches. So your players' current form, skills, experience, injury status etc on the match day will be used. There are two exceptions though: team spirit (and confidence) is set to a fixed value and cards work differently. See below for details.

No effects after match

Tournament matches have no effect on your team or your players after match. Players don't get any training or experience from these matches, nor do matches have any effect on formation experience, team spirit and so on.


All the details you need to know about tournament matches are listed here:

Team spirit: Team spirit is set to a fixed level (content) in tournament matches.
Team confidence: Confidence is set to a fixed level (wonderful) in tournament matches.
Injuries: No injuries will occur in tournament matches, but any injured player in "normal" Hattrick will not be able to play.
Cards (own tournaments): Tournaments have their own card status, and have a completely different system of red / yellow cards from 'normal' Hattrick. As such, any card received in a tournament match will only count for the matches that are part of that tournament. Equally, should a player be red carded in normal Hattrick, he will still be able to play in a tournament match.
Cards (Ladders): Cards don't count at all in ladder tournaments.
Training: Players don't get any training from tournament matches.
Experience: Player don't gain any experience from playing tournament matches.
Formations: Your current formation experience in "normal" Hattrick is also used for tournament matches. However, you do not gain any formation experience from tournament matches.

National teams

In Hattrick, just like in the real world, there are national teams competing against each other. But in Hattrick the coach of your country's national squad is elected by you! Each Hattrick country has a national A squad, but also an U-20 team featuring players 20 years old or younger. This means each country has two national coaches, both elected by the community.

The World Cup format

The World Cup begins every second season and starts with a qualification round. 32 teams advance from this round to the World Cup. There are three round-robin group stages, with 4 teams to a group and the top two teams qualifying for the next stage. The final two rounds are playoff matches, beginning with the semi-finals and culminating in the World Cup final. The U-20 World Cup begins a season after the World Cup, and follows the same format.

Seeding for World Cup Round I is based on ranking, which is determined by previous World Cup results. When no World Cup matches are scheduled, the national teams can play friendlies.


Elections are held at the beginning of the season, starting the day after the World Cup final. Every second season you elect the national coach and every second season you elect the U-20 coach. Each coach is elected for two seasons, ending his term after the World Cup final.

Note that you will need to have played Hattrick for at least four weeks in order to be able to vote in the national team elections.

The national team squad

The national coach picks up to 26 players (from teams with real owners), including coach(es), freely from those players with the same nationality as the team he is representing. Once picked, the coach can see the same data for the national team players as you do for your own team.

Having a national team player

If one of your players is on the national team, his ability to play for your team will be unaffected. National games and club games are played on separate days, so you can always use him. But matches for the national team will not give your player any training. However, he does run the risk of being injured while playing for the national team.

If your player gets to play a match with the national team there are several benefits for your club:

  • You will get a salary reduction of 33% or 40% of the player's salary, depending on whether he is playing in a foreign team or his home country respectively.
  • The player gains a lot of experience.
  • If a player gets injured and has to leave the field in a match for his national team, as well as the regular salary reduction, the club will get a compensation amounting to 100% of his base salary times the estimated number of weeks the injury is expected to last.

Note that you are expected to not undermine national teams by sabotaging your national team player(s). The National Team Administrators, as a last resort, have the discretion to release players to the transfer market in the event of sabotage.

If you consider running for office, or if you just want more information, we recommend that you read the rules for national teams.

Hattrick Masters

The Hattrick Masters is the international tournament for all cup and league winners. It is played for four weeks, starting after round 4 each season. Matches are played at 20.00 Mondays and Thursdays.


256 teams can participate in the Masters and it is played as a straight cup with 8 rounds. The draw for each round is completely randomised, and the matches are played on neutral grounds.

If there are not enough teams to fill up the first round completely, some lucky teams (selected randomly) will skip the first round and join the action in the second round. If any of the cup or league winners have become ownerless (or changed owner), they may not participate in the Masters. If a team wins both league and cup in the same season, they will be the only team from that nation participating in the Masters.

Special tournament rules

There are some special rules that apply to the Masters:

Card and Injuries: Cards do not matter (except red cards in the game, of course), but injuries are recorded as normal.

Team Attitude: Playing "Match of the Season" (MOTS) or "Play it Cool" (PIC) will not lower/raise your team spirit after the match by as much as it would after a regular match. The effect during the match is the same as during a regular match though.

Training: Masters games do not count towards a player's training.

Masters income

The home and the away team split the crowd revenue 50/50. The best teams also get some prize money. The sums are exactly the same as for the national cups and are awarded to the final sixteen teams.

Additional club

With Supporter Platinum you have the opportunity to manage an additional club. You manage this club individually, just as you manage your primary club, which means the additional club has its own separate player squad, arena, finances, youth team and so on.

Start an additional club

You can start an additional club at any time. Your additional club can play in the same country as your primary club or in another country, as long as there is space available in that country.

Additional club will start with some initial funds (just as any other new club), but owners will not need to do the manager license.

General rules

You can have one additional club.

You will not be able to make any transfers between the two clubs and clubs can't buy players who have been owned by the other club at some point in their career.

Additional club in the same country

Your primary and additional clubs will not be able to play in the same series or meet each other in a qualifier, nor meet each other in the cup (with the exception of the final). Both clubs can play at the same series level, but in different series.

If both clubs are set to play in the top series, the one entering last will not be allowed to promote. That spot will instead go to the highest ranked club that isn't already qualified to play in the top series that season.

If both clubs promote to the top series at the same time, only the primary club will get to promote.

Additional club in another country

The number of additional club spots available for "foreign" managers in a country depends on many clubs are unused in that country, something that depends on how big the country is and how many users are already playing in it.

A minimum of 50% of the clubs in a country are reserved for local users. So, in a league with 168 clubs, at least 84 of them are reserved for local users (and the other 84 slots can be taken by any manager, local or foreign). But if a country is 90% full – the remaining slots will be reserved for local users only.

Switch series in switching window

It's possible for additional clubs to switch series (where possible) in the series switching window in-between seasons, but it's not possible to switch to the series where your other club is playing.


Flags are collected by clubs separately, additional clubs have their own flag collections.

Playing against a additional club rewards flags just as playing any other club would, and the additional club is rewarded flags for its own collection.


Achievements are achieved by the manager, and achievements are thus saved for each user (and not for each club).

Voting in elections

You will not be able to vote in national team elections in the country of your additional club. You can only vote in the country of your primary club.


If your primary club goes bankrupt you will also lose access to your additional club.

If your additional club goes bankrupt you can start a new one 16 weeks after the date you started your previous additional club (so if you've had your additional club for more than 16 weeks you can start a new club immediately).

Close additional club

You can close your additional club at any time. But if you close your additional club, you'll have to wait at least 16 weeks from when you started your previous additional club until you can start a new one.

Platinum subscription expiry

If your Platinum subscription expires you will still be the manager of your additional club for one week, but you will not be able to manage it. If you purchase Platinum again during this time you will get access to your additional club again. But if you don't, the club will become ownerless and you will not be able to return to it.


It's forbidden to scan any page at XML-files are provided to third party developers. In order to be granted permission to use these files you need to be approved as CHPP.

Generally, the servers are always open for business, with allowances for operational disturbances or upgrades. We always try to give due notice of service interruptions, but under extreme circumstances we might have to fix problems without the luxury of forewarning.

Sometimes unplanned events occur, such as bugs. If something that seems strange happens, email the GMs about it and we'll have a look. When we're troubleshooting we try to make it as realistic as possible, but for practical reasons a match can't be replayed. Unfair calls from referees, strange occurrences around the pitch ruining a game, and bad luck are, when all is said and done, part of the game.

The only thing you need to play is Internet access, a reasonably modern web browser, like Netscape 4.0 or Internet Explorer 4.0, and an email address.

The Hattrick team is always trying to improve the game. Functions may be added at any time, although larger changes are usually introduced between seasons. As Hattrick is a game with no actual ending point, it sometimes has to be adjusted by the developers. For example, to prevent certain types of teams from becoming invincible. In short, the developers supervise the game, sometimes having to exercise a certain amount of control. They try to achieve this as fairly and smoothly as possible, preferably giving notice of changes in good time, to help you adjust. However, sometimes changes just have to be made.

You've read the rules on behaviour, haven't you? Your only duty as a Hattrick player is to follow them. It's all about you, and us, and all the other Hattrick players having the right to be spared from a lot of problems, or having our integrity violated.

You can only have one team. If you have multiple teams, all of them will be disqualified and you will be suspended. It won't help if one of your friends registered the team: if you're the one controlling it (giving the orders) you're considered to be the owner. Only the user who applied for the team may manage the team. One more time: it is absolutely forbidden to have more than one club! Those who have tried have been disqualified. Sometimes, it might take a while before you're found out, but sooner or later you will be. By then, the tragedy will be even greater, as you'll have spent so much time on your team, just to be shamefully thrown out for cheating.

If you have any questions, contact the Gamemasters.


In Hattrick there are a number of GameMasters, or GMs. These are a small group of especially skilled and responsible players who have been appointed to make sure the game works, prevent cheating and help players having various problems with their teams. The GameMasters make themselves available because they enjoy helping and they don't get paid for their work.

Hopefully, you'll only have to contact them if you have trouble logging into your team, for instance, or if you want to report a bug or cheating.

Sometimes the GameMasters will have to act, disqualifying people who cheat or break the rules of conduct for the site. If this happens to you and you believe that you have been unjustly punished, you have the right to try to explain why you think you're not guilty. But, and this is important, in Hattrick the same rules apply as on the football pitch.

The Gamemasters' decisions can be appealed to the Senior Gamemasters, whose decisions can't be contested. Please be aware that punishments that are under appeal can be increased or decreased once a final decision has been made. You may inquire as to why you have been suspended, but it's not the Gamemasters' duty to account for all their evidence. If they always revealed how they caught cheaters, discovering cheating would be much harder in the future.

The GameMasters are not obliged to prove possible cheating. On the contrary, it's the GameMasters' obligation to suspend any players they're convinced are cheating.

The GameMasters have the authority to issue several different forms of punishment, from in-game fines on your club to complete suspension from the game.

We on the Hattrick team support our staff. The GMs discuss the principles of preventing cheating with us on a regular basis, but we never involve ourselves in specific cases. The persons appointed as staff are people we have whole-hearted confidence in.

To contact a Gamemaster, please visit our contact page. Please do not use the internal HT-Mail system to contact staff for in-game matters. The internal mail is for them as managers of their clubs, not their role as staff members. Additionally, all correspondence between the staff and users is considered private and should be treated as such between yourself and the staff members.

Your behaviour

Hattrick is completely free of charge. We only insist that you follow some simple rules on how to act. They're simple and pretty obvious. If you think that someone is breaking the rules, please notify the GameMasters. It is strictly prohibited for you, as a Hattrick player, to engage in any of the activities described below.

  • Anyone scanning pages at may be disqualified from Hattrick with immediate effect.
  • Sending threatening, insulting or derogatory messages, by email or other means, to other players or in Hattrick's conferences. Spamming users or conferences, i.e. sending unsolicited messages like advertisements. It is also forbidden to act in a profane or otherwise abusive manner on the site, including in the conferences.
  • Attempting to steal or sabotage Hattrick Ltd. property, or encouraging others to do so. This property includes the servers, software and copyright-protected material.
  • Cheating in any way, such as trying to decipher the passwords of other players, or trying, in any other way, to unduly spoil the enjoyment of other players.
  • Attempting to access information that is not linked on the site, or trying to post data in a similar fashion.
  • Scanning the site, or creating, using or distributing applications that automate parts of the game, unless these applications are authorized by the game developers. Also, you may not automatically include parts of the site on other sites or in other applications.
  • Making cheating accusations, advertising for real life goods (this includes referral links from which you may benefit), promotion of criminal activities and/or drugs, and discussing specific GM or Mod decisions. These rules apply to all areas of Hattrick.

It is strictly forbidden to navigate the site or access information from the site in any other way than:

  • Navigating the site using a browser and by clicking the links.
  • Using a CHPP-approved application.

This also means that you are not allowed to manually edit the address field of your browser (or any similar program or device) to access or change some specific information on the site after logging in. Failure to comply with this may result in your account being terminated by the officials.

Also note that only one team is allowed per person. It is forbidden to control extra teams by using a friend's name. The owner of a team has to be the one controlling it. Remember, the person who logs into a team account is the one deemed to control it. This means that you may not even let friends or family log in to use your team, as the team is considered private. It's also prohibited to buy players from friends at obviously inflated prices, even though you're just trying to be a nice guy! And finally, it is not allowed to give away your team to another person, since that would be unfair to people that are still waiting for a team.

For all situations not explicitly described in the rules, the HT staff members (GM, Mod, CHPP) have discretionary authority to resolve the situation within the spirit of the rules.

Simple, isn't it? You're playing Hattrick to have some fun. So are the other gamers. Let us all be able to do so, now and in the future.

See also

The Hattrick Week

Something's nearly always happening at Hattrick. No matter what time of day you visit the site, thousands of users will be logged in. The transfer market never sleeps, and neither do the conferences and chat. However, some particular times are important to remember, and you can find them all on the information page for your league. To find these, visit the League page and click "League Dates". Keep in mind that the times stated here are given in Central European Time, CET, which is GMT +1:


In the Hattrick database, all team and player abilities are represented by exact numerical values. However, describing a player's skill at something as 37.567 would be pretty boring and not very realistic. Instead, we use different denominations to describe these values, so one player might be "excellent" at passing the ball, while another player might be "formidable". This is how the denominations are organised:


These are the exchange rates used in the Hattrick economy. Normally, you don't have to worry about the exchange rates at all, as all amounts are automatically translated into your own local currency. However, when you communicate with users from other leagues, it can be useful to know the exchange rates.

Promotion prize money

Prize money depends on your place and in which division you play.

Transfer Fees